Basics of Pandunia
This document is a simple guide to the main features of Pandunia.
Letters and sounds
|v||w (ʋ, v)|
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in "are there three or two".
All other consonant are like in English except:
- ch is always like CH in church
- g is always hard
- r and h are never silent
- s is always voiceless
- sh is like SH in shop
Never changing words
Words don't ever change in Pandunia. The same word, without any change in form, can serve as a noun, adjective or verb.
Nouns indicate a group of one or more; definite or indefinite; masculine, neuter or feminine. Number, definiteness and gender are indicated by additional words.
– a cat, the cat, cats, the cats
un mau – one cat
du mau – two cats
tri mau – three cats
ba mau – many cats
le mau – the cat(s)
|First||mi (I, me)||mimon (we, us)|
|Second||tu (you)||tumon (you)|
|Third||ye (he or she, him or her)||yemon (they, them)|
The basic word order is subject–verb–object (SVO).
mi ama tu. – I love you.
Tense, aspect and mood are indicated with helping verbs.
mi zai ama tu.
– I am loving you.
(zai indicates ongoing time i.e. progressive aspect)
me pas ama tu. – I loved you. (pas indicates the past time)
mi le ama tu. – I have loved you. (le indicates completed action i.e. the perfective aspect)
mi sha ama tu. – I will love you. (sha indicates future time)
Passive voice is formed with the help of the helping verb be.
tu be ama.
– You are loved.
mi be ama da tu. – I am loved by you.
Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives are before the noun that they modify.
un nove idea
– new idea
le bon buke – the good book(s)
Adjectives are compared with max (more, -er), maxim (most, -est), min (less), minim (least) and sam (equally, as). The point of comparison is introduced with ka.
mi su granpa e max lau ka tu su pa. – My grandpa is older than your father.
Adverbs are usually before the word that they modify.
mi muche ama tu.
– I much love you.
mi ama tu, muche. – I love you much.
The word no denies the word that follows it.
no mi a ye vol kapa ye.
– Not me but he/she wants to take it.
mi no vol kapa ye. – I don't want to take it.
mi vol no kapa ye. – I want not to take it.
mi vol kapa no ye a va. – I want to take not this but that.
The question words is ke (what, who). The normal word order is used in questions.
tu ama ke?
– Who do you love?
ke man ya ama tu? – Which man loves you?
tu ama mi ke muche? – How much do you love me?