Basics of Pandunia

This document is a simple guide to the main features of Pandunia.

Letters and sounds

Pandunia IPA
a a
b b
ch
d d
e e
f f
g g
h x (h)
i i
j
k
l l
m m
n n
o o
p
r r (ɹ)
s s
sh ʃ
t
u u
v w (ʋ, v)
x ks (s)
y j
z z (dz)

The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in "are there three or two".

All other consonant are like in English except:

  • ch is always like CH in church
  • g is always hard
  • r and h are never silent
  • s is always voiceless
  • sh is like SH in shop

Never changing words

Words don't ever change in Pandunia. The same word, without any change in form, can serve as a noun, adjective or verb.

Nouns

Nouns indicate a group of one or more; definite or indefinite; masculine, neuter or feminine. Number, definiteness and gender are indicated by additional words.

mau – a cat, the cat, cats, the cats
un mau – one cat
du mau – two cats
tri mau – three cats
ba mau – many cats
le mau – the cat(s)

Personal pronouns

Person Singular Plural
First mi (I, me) mimon (we, us)
Second tu (you) tumon (you)
Third ye (he or she, him or her) yemon (they, them)

Verbs

The basic word order is subject–verb–object (SVO).

mi ama tu. – I love you.

Tense, aspect and mood are indicated with helping verbs.

mi zai ama tu. – I am loving you. (zai indicates ongoing time i.e. progressive aspect)
me pas ama tu. – I loved you. (pas indicates the past time)
mi le ama tu. – I have loved you. (le indicates completed action i.e. the perfective aspect)
mi sha ama tu. – I will love you. (sha indicates future time)

Passive voice is formed with the help of the helping verb be.

tu be ama. – You are loved.
mi be ama da tu. – I am loved by you.

Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives are before the noun that they modify.

un nove idea – new idea
le bon buke – the good book(s)

Adjectives are compared with max (more, -er), maxim (most, -est), min (less), minim (least) and sam (equally, as). The point of comparison is introduced with ka.

mi su granpa e max lau ka tu su pa. – My grandpa is older than your father.

Adverbs are usually before the word that they modify.

mi muche ama tu. – I much love you.
mi ama tu, muche. – I love you much.

Saying no

The word no denies the word that follows it.

no mi a ye vol kapa ye. – Not me but he/she wants to take it.
mi no vol kapa ye. – I don't want to take it.
mi vol no kapa ye. – I want not to take it.
mi vol kapa no ye a va. – I want to take not this but that.

Questions

The question words is ke (what, who). The normal word order is used in questions.

tu ama ke? – Who do you love?
ke man ya ama tu? – Which man loves you?
tu ama mi ke muche? – How much do you love me?