Verbs

Verbs are unchanging in Pandunia. Things like person, number, time and mood are indicated by separate words, not by changing the form of verbs as in English and other languages.

Person and number

Person and number are indicated by the subject. For example, the verb si ('to be') has the same form for all persons.

mi si dosti. – I am a friend.
tu si dosti. – You are a friend.
ye si dosti. – He or she is a friend.
mimon si dosti. – We are friends.
tumon si dosti. – You are friends.
yemon si dosti. – They are friends.

Also a noun can serve as subject.

mau si zou. – The cat is an animal.

Frequently there is a marker between the subject and the verb to indicate where the subject ends and the verb begins. It is particularly helpful when the subject and the verb are content words that could serve as both. The marker is typically a particle or an auxiliary verb. One of the many suitable markers is ya ('yes'), which adds no content to the sentence but helps to clarify its structure.

peshe si mau yam. – Fish is catfood.
mau ya yam yo peshe. – The cat eats some fish.

Other suitable markers include auxiliaries of time and mood, which are introduced next.

Auxiliaries of time

The relationship of an action, event or state to time is indicated with auxiliary verbs.

shuru ('begin, start') indicates beginning of an action or transition to a new situation.

mi shuru fuku la kote. – I start wearing the coat. = I put the coat on.
kaguji ya shuru hogo. – Paper starts to burn.
tu shuru yam. – You start to eat.

fin ('end, cease, quit, stop') conveys the idea of "to stop doing something".

yemon fin haha. – They stopped laughing.
kaguji ya fin hoge. – Paper ceased to burn.
tu fin yam. – You stop eating.

pul ('fulfill', 'complete') indicates that an action is done completely.

tu pul yam un piza. – You ate a pizza completely.
mi pul vide la filme. – I completed watching the film. / I watched the film completely.

fen ('partially') indicates that the action is only partially done.

tu fen yam un piza. – You ate some of the pizza.
mi fen vide la filme. – I watched some of the movie.

zai '(be present') indicates that a situation is happening at present.

mi zai yam un piza. – I am eating a pizza.

dur ('keep on', 'continue', 'proceed') indicates that a situation is continuing or in progress.

mi dur yam la piza. – I keep on eating the pizza.

ada ('have a habit', 'be used to') indicates that an action is done regularly.

mi ada gul yo bir. – I have a habit of drinking beer.

le ('attain, accomplish, reach') indiciates that an action has happened in the past and is still ongoing, or is relevant to the current situation. You can think of it somewhat like the past perfect in English (I have done, I have eaten).

ye le si guru. – He or she has been a teacher (and still is).
mi no le gul yo alkohol. – I haven't drank alcohol.
mi le no gul yo alkohol. – I have reached not drinking alcohol.
mi le don la buku do yemon. – I have given the book to them. (So I don't have it.)
yemon no le don ye re do mi. – They haven't given it back to me.
mi le lai do siti. – I have come to the city.

pas ('pass, go past, go through') indicates that an action is finished and is no longer relevant to the current situation. You can think of it somewhat like the past simple in English (I finished, I ate).

mi pas don la buku do yemon. – I gave the book to them. (Maybe they don't have it anymore or they gave it back.)
mi pas keka la France. – I have visited France.
mi pas ada gul yo bir. – I used to drink beer. / I had a habit of drinking beer.
mi pas lai do siti. – I came to the city.

sha ('will, shall') indicates that the event will take place later or in the future.

ye sha si guru. – He or she shall be a teacher.
mi no sha gul un bir. – I will not drink a beer.