A modifier is a word that adds a particular quality or description, such as good, bad, big, and fast, to another word. In Pandunia, there is only one class of modifiers. The same word can modify nouns and verbs, whereas in English only adjectives can modify nouns and only adverbs can modify verbs. For example, the word sundar ('beautiful' or 'beautifully') modifies a noun in sentence A and a verb in sentence B.
A. go si un sundar kitabu.
– That is a beautiful writing.
B. tu sundar di kitabu. – You write beautifully.
In Pandunia, "adjectives" are modifiers that are placed before the noun that they modify.
un nove kar
– a new car
un rapide kar – a fast car
ba dai meza – big tables
ba gau meza – high tables
un bon jan – a good person
Two or more modifiers can modify the same noun.
un lili nove kar – a little new car
A modifier that modifies a verb is placed immediately before the verb.
tu rapide loga.
– You talk fast.
yemon bon kitabu. – They write well.
It is common to put the modifying particle di between the modifier and the verb. It makes the structure of the verb phrase clearer.
tu sundar di kitabu.
– You write beautifully.
yemon kuai di marche. – They walk fast.
Modifying other modifiers
The particle di is used also when a modifier modifies another one.
un surpris di bon buku
– a surprisingly good book
ba forte di ai ja jan – strongly loving people
Degree words tell us about the intensity of something.
tai – too
bas – quite, sufficiently, enough
mas – more
min – less
Degree words are placed before the word that they modify.
un dai man
– a big man
un tre dai man – a very big man
un tai dai man – a too big man
un bas dai man – a big enough man / a sufficiently big man
A degree word together with a modifier forms a compound adverb that can modify a verb or a sentence. The compound adverb is placed immediately before the verb that it modifies.
– very much
mi tre muche vol loga.
– I want very much to speak.
mi vol tre muche loga. – I want to speak very much.
It is also possible to place the compound adverb very last in the sentence, and then it modifies the sentence as a whole. The meaning is the same like when the compound adverb modifies the main verb.
mi vol loga tre muche.
– I want to speak very much.
sual tu sona bas bon? – Did you sleep well enough?
Adverbs of comparison
Adjectives can be compared with the adverbs of comparison.
- mas (more) indicates comparison of superiority
- masim (most) indicates the superlative of superiority
- min (less) indicates comparison of inferiority
- minim (least) indicates the superlative of inferiority
- par (as or equally) indicates the comparison of equality
The particle ka relates the adverbs of comparison to the object of comparison.
aple si mas bon ka oranje.
= Apples are better than oranges.
oranje si min bon ka aple. = Oranges are less good than apples.
tu loga par bon ka mi. = You speak as well as me.