Pronouns

Pronouns can substitute nouns and noun phrases.

Personal pronouns

Singular Plural
mi mimen
I, me we
tu tumen
you you all
ya yamen
he or she they

All pronouns can be used for all genders.

The possessive pronouns consists of the personal pronoun and the possessive particle su.

Singular Plural
mi su mimen su
my our
tu su tumen su
your your
ya su yamen su
his or her their

Reflexive pronoun

The reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject.

se – self

Note! The same reflexive pronoun is used for all persons, so it corresponds to English myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves and themselves all at once.

mi vide se – I see myself.
ya vide se – She sees herself. / He sees himself. / It sees itself.
mimen vide se. – We see ourselves.

The expression se kon is used as the reciprocal pronoun.

se kon – each other, one another

mi si tu vide se kon. – Me and you see each other.
mimen vide se kon. – We see each other.

Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used with nouns to make them more specific. The demonstrative pronouns in Pandunia are:

ni – this (near the speaker)
go – that (far from speaker)
la – the (known by both the speaker and the listener)

In Pandunia, ni, go and la work only as modifiers and they always require a noun after them. To use them like pronouns, a generic noun like she ('thing') needs to be added after these words.

The proximal demonstrative ni points to things that are near the speaker. The distal demonstrative go points to things that are far from the speaker.

ni she si bon. – This (thing) is good.
go she si dus. – That (thing) is bad.
mi vol ni buke, no go. – I want this book, not that.

The basic proximal and distal pronouns are used for introducing a new object. The topical demonstrative la, on the other hand, does not specify physical distance but it is used when the speaker has already mentioned the object or person in question and it is known by the audience or is topical within the discourse.

ni she si mau. ya vol yam go mushu. – This is a cat. It wants to eat that mouse.

mi ten un mau e un vaf. la vaf si dai. ya yam poli yam. – I have a cat and a dog. The dog is big. It eats a lot of food.

Abstract use

The demonstrative pronouns can be used also discourse internally. Then they refer to abstract entities of discourse, not concrete objects. la refers to things previously spoken, ni refers to things currently being spoken, and go refers to things about to be spoken.

ni jumle si korte. – This sentence is short.

In the above, ni jumle (this sentence) refers to the sentence being spoken.

mi mana go: mi ama tu. – I mean this: I love you. OR I mean that I love you.
mi ama tu. mi mana ni. – I love you. That is what I mean.

In the above, the pronoun go refers to the content of the next statement and ni refers to the content of the previous statement.

Interrogative pronouns

ke is a general-purpose interrogative pronoun. It does the job of English words who and what.

ke? – Who or what?

The adjectival interrogative pronoun is ke and it means the same as English which.

ke she? – What? (Which thing?)
ke jan? – Who? (Which person?)
ke zaman? – When? (What time?)

Also adjectives are questioned with ke.

ke nove? – How new?
ke koste? – How costy?
ke poli? – How many?
ke dai? – How big?
ke lili? – How small?

tu tena ke dai di mau? – How big cat do you have?