Word derivation

New words can be built freely in Pandunia! Pandunia has a productive system of word derivation. Most of the suffixes that are used in Pandunia are already in international use. Many of them come from ancient Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian.

How to combine words

Two or more words can be put together to make a compound word. The last word is the most meaningful part in the compound and the words that come before it only modify its meaning.

demo (the people) + krati (rule) = demokrati (democracy).

andemokratili (undemocratic)

termo (warmth) + metre (measurement) + gi (tool) = termometregi (thermometer).

Common affixes

an-

Creates verbs that reverse the meaning of the base verb.

node (to tie) → annode (to untie)
tapa (to plug, to close with a plug) → antapa (to unplug, to open the plug).

ja

Creates agent nouns. It denotes a person who does or causes the action.

yam (to eat) → yamja (one who eats, eater)
shul (to learn) → shulja (one who learns, learner)
karate (karate) → karateja (one who does karate, karateka)

loga (to speak) → logaja (speaker, the one who speaks)
filsofi (to think deeply) → filsofija (philosopher)
mata (death) → mataja (killer)

The derivative can be also more loosely associated with the root.

sapate (shoe) → sapateja (shoemaker)
muskete (musket) → musketeja (musketeer)
kasa (cash box) → kasaja (cashier)

ta

Creates abstract nouns.

nove (new) → noveta (newness, novelty)
huru (free) → huruta (freedom)
un (one) unta (oneness, unity)

ya

Creates aggregate nouns. It denotes a group of elements named by the root as a whole.

insan human being; insania humanity, mankind, all the human beings as a group.
kristi Christian, kristia Christianity, all Christians as a group.
filsof view, outlook, life wisdom; filsofia philosophy, the discipline of wisdom.

This ending is often found in place names, especially in country names. However this use is not systematic and it's not required. There are also a lot of country names that do not end in -ia.

arabi Arab, Arabic; Arabia Arabia
rusi Russian; Rusia Russia
turki Turk, Turkish; Turkia Turkey
Asia Asia
Indonesia Indonesia
Italia Italy

When it is added after -er, it means a field of expertise.

enjener engineering
sapateria shoemaking

-ik-

-ik- denotes someone or something that is predominantly characterized by the base word.

uni one → uniki only, sole, single
dome – home
domiki – domestic
nevi new → nevike novice, newbie

bil

Indicates possibility. It is often used with the agent suffix ja.

bil possible
bilja able, capable

vide (to see) → videbil (which can be seen, visible)
videbilja (who/which can see)

-ist-

This suffix that denotes a person who tends to behave or think in a certain way or to follow a certain ideology or religion.

deu god
deviste theist (one who believes in existence of a god or gods)
devisti theistic
devistia theism (system of belief in a god or gods)

-it-

Passive participle and causative suffix.

sava to know
saviti known
savita to make known