Pronouns

Pronouns can substitute nouns and noun phrases.

Personal pronouns

Singular Plural
mi mimen
I, me we
tu tumen
you you all
ya yamen
he or she they

All pronouns can be used for all genders.

The possessive pronouns consists of the personal pronoun and the possessive particle de.

Singular Plural
mi di mimen di
my our
tu di tumen di
your your
ya di yamen di
his or her their

Reflexive pronoun

The reflexive pronoun is used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject.

se – self

Note! The same reflexive pronoun is used for all persons, so it corresponds to English myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves and themselves all at once.

mi vide se – I see myself.
ya vide se – She sees herself. / He sees himself. / It sees itself.
mimen vide se. – We see ourselves.

The word semen is used as the reciprocal pronoun.

semen – each other, one another

mi e tu vide semen. – Me and you see each other.
mimen vide semen. – We see each other.

Demonstrative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are:

ya – this
va – that

The form that ends in -e is used when the demonstrative stands alone, and the form that ends in -i is used when the demonstrative modifies a noun.

The proximal demonstrative ya points to things that are near the speaker. The distal demonstrative va points to things that are far from the speaker.

ya e bon. – This is good.
va e dus. – That is bad.
mi vol ya buke, no va. – I want this book, not that.

The basic proximal and distal pronouns are used for introducing a new object. The topical demonstrative ya, on the other hand, does not specify physical distance but it is used when the speaker has already mentioned the object or person in question and it is known by the audience or is topical within the discourse.

ya e mau. ya vola yam va mux. – This is a cat. It wants to eat that mouse.

mi male un mau e un vaf. li vaf e dai. ya yam pol yam. – I own a cat and a dog. The dog is big. It eats a lot of food.

Abstract use

The demonstrative pronouns can be used also discourse internally. Then they refer to abstract entities of discourse, not concrete objects. ya refers to things previously spoken, ya refers to things currently being spoken, and va refers to things about to be spoken.

ya jumle e korti. – This sentence is short.

In the above, ya jumle (this sentence) refers to the sentence being spoken.

mi mena va: mi ai tu. – I mean this: I love you. OR I mean that I love you.
mi ai tu. ya mi mena. – I love you. That is what I mean.

In the above, the pronoun va refers to the content of the next statement and de refers to the content of the previous statement.

Interrogative pronouns

ke is a general-purpose interrogative pronoun. It does the job of English words who and what.

ke? – Who or what?

The adjectival interrogative pronoun is ki and it means the same as English which.

ki xei? – What? (Which thing?)
ki jan? – Who? (Which person?)
ki zaman? – When? (What time?)

The adverbial interrogative pronoun is ko and it means the same as English how.

Also adjectives are questioned with ko.

ko novi? – How new?
ko kosti? – How costy?
ko poli? – How many?
ko dai? – How big?
ko lili? – How small?

tu tena ko dai mau? – How big cat do you have?