Word class markers
Pandunia uses vowel endings for quick word derivation. In this system the final vowel of a word indicates its word class. So the root (i.e. stem) of the word indicates a general idea and the vowel endings indicate different manifestations of that idea.
Pandunia uses the following vowel endings to mark parts of speech.
No vowel or -e indicates a noun, which is the name of the thing or idea that the root is about. Nouns answer to the question: What?
-ia indicates a collective noun, which means the totality of the things that the root is about. It can also indicate an abstract noun. For example, insania means "humanity" both as the collective "humankind" and as the abstract "humanhood".
-i indicates an adjective, which describes the main characteristic or quality of the root. Adjectives answer to the following questions: What kind? How many?
-o indicates an adverb, which describes a manner or a circumstance (ex. place or time). Adverbs answer to the following questions: How? Where? When?
-a indicates an active verb, which is an action that a person can do with the corresponding noun. So the purpose or the potential of the noun determines the meaning of the verb.
-u indicates a passive verb, which is an event that happens or an action that is done to someone. The meaning of a passive verb depends on the corresponding active verb.
These endings and the participles (-an- and -it-) are the only true suffixes i.e. bound morphemes in Pandunia. All other suffixes can be used also as independent words. For example paciste (pacifist) is made up of two full words: pace (peace) and iste (proponent).
The designated vowel endings enable easy derivation of one type of word from another. An ending is simply changed to another ending. All endings can be used on all roots in the same way.
- The ending -e converts the idea into a thing. For example, nile means the color blue.
- The ending -i converts the idea into a description. The resulting adjective describes another idea with the modifying idea. For example, nili dome means a blue house.
- The ending -a converts the idea into an action. The resulting verb is about using the idea to an object. For example, nila dom means "to make the house blue".
- The ending -u creates an action just like -a. The only difference is that the word order is reversed so that the object comes first. For example, dom nilu means "the house becomes blue".
Here are a few examples of different types of ideas.
- concrete action
- kitabe writing, text (noun)
- kitabi written, textual (adjective)
- kitabo by writing, textually (adverb)
- kitaba to write (active verb)
- kitabu to be written (passive verb)
- abstract action
- fikre thought (noun)
- fikri thought (adjective)
- fikro by thought (adverb)
- fikra to think (active verb)
- fikru to be thought (passive verb)
- longe length (noun)
- longi long, lengthy (adjective)
- longo lengthily (adverb)
- longa to make long, lengthen (active verb)
- longu to get long, be lengthened (passive verb)
- suke delight (noun)
- suki delighted, happy (adjective)
- suko happily (adverb)
- suka to delight, please (active verb)
- suku to be delighted, be pleased (passive verb)
- hamar a hammer (noun)
- hamari hammerlike (adjective)
- hamaro by/with/like a hammer
- hamara to hammer, to use hammer on sth (active verb)
- hamaru to be hammered (passive verb)
-a and -u are the endings for verbs.
- If the stem's idea is an action, then its verb form will mean "to do the action". For example from vide (a look) we get vida (to look).
- If the idea is a description then its verb form will mean "to turn into that quality". For example from novi (new) we get nova (to make new or to renew).
- If the idea is a thing, then its verb form will mean "to apply it to". For example from hamar (hammer) we get hamara (to hammer).
-e is the ending for nouns.
If the stem's idea is an action, then its noun form will mean the result or the product of the action. For example from kitaba (to write) we get kitabe (writing or text).
If the idea is a description, then its noun form will mean a concrete instance of that quality. For example from novi (new) we get nove (a novelty i.e. something new).
Additional noun suffixes are presented below.
-i is the ending for adjectives and adjectival verbs.
If the stem's idea is a description, then its adjectival form will mean "that which is in the state of the root". For example from nov- (newness), we get novi (new i.e. that which is new).
If the idea is an action, then its adjectival form will mean the state that is produced by the action. For example from loga (to speak) we get logi (spoken).
If the idea is a thing, an object or a person, then its adjectival form will mean "that which is like the root". For example, from the noun insan (human being), we get the adjective insani (human, having the attributes of a human being).
If the root is a place word, then its adjectival form will mean "that which is from that place".
Rusia Russia, Rusi Russian
Pakistan Pakistan, Pakistani Pakistani
Amerike America, Ameriki American
Europe Europe, Europi European
Asia Asia, Asi Asian
Words without a vowel ending
Normally, when a word doesn't end in a vowel, it is a noun. The noun ending -e is used only when the word would be otherwise difficult to pronounce by international speakers. So it is necessary to use -e after stop consonants (ex. supe instead of sup), affricates (ex. noce and laje instead of noc and laj), voiced fricatives (ex. taze instead of and taz) and consonant series (ex. poste and yogurte instead of post and yogurt). Otherwise nouns don't have a vowel ending.
In addition, a handful of adjectives and adverbs don't have a vowel ending. The adjectives without the ending are bon (good), mal (bad), lil (small), dai (big), nol (none), un (one), koi (some), mei (every), and pan (all). The adverbs withouth the ending are max (more), maxim (most), min (less), and minim (least).
Note that it is always acceptable to use the vowel endings on every word. So it is acceptable to say boni hotele instead of bon hotel (a good hotel).