# 6. Numerals

## Cardinal numbers

Ones | Ten and over | 20 and over | 30 and over |
---|---|---|---|

0 siro | 10 (un) ten | 20 du ten | 30 tri ten |

1 un | 11 ten un | 21 du ten un | 31 tri ten un |

2 du | 12 ten du | 22 du ten du | 32 tri ten du |

3 tri | 13 ten tri | 23 du ten tri | 33 tri ten tri |

4 for | 14 ten for | 24 du ten for | 34 tri ten for |

5 faif | 15 ten faif | 25 du ten faif | 35 tri ten faif |

6 sixe | 16 ten sixe | 26 du ten sixe | 36 tri ten sixe |

7 seven | 17 ten seven | 27 du ten seven | 37 tri ten seven |

8 eite | 18 ten eite | 28 du ten eite | 38 tri ten eite |

9 nain | 19 ten nain | 29 du ten nain | 39 tri ten nain |

Ones | Tens | Hundreds | Thousands |
---|---|---|---|

1 un | 10 (un) ten | 100 un hunde | 1000 un tauzen |

2 du | 20 du ten | 200 du hunde | 2000 du tauzen |

3 tri | 30 tri ten | 300 tri hunde | 3000 tri tauzen |

4 for | 40 for ten | 400 for hunde | 4000 for tauzen |

5 faif | 50 faif ten | 500 faif hunde | 5000 faif tauzen |

6 sixe | 60 sixe ten | 600 sixe hunde | 6000 sixe tauzen |

7 seven | 70 seven ten | 700 seven hunde | 7000 seven tauzen |

8 eite | 80 eite ten | 800 eite hunde | 8000 eite tauzen |

9 nain | 90 nain ten | 900 nain hunde | 9000 nain tauzen |

Greater numbers follow the same logic as above.

10'000 un ten tauzen

100'000 un hunde tauzen

1'000'000 un milion

10'000'000 un ten milion

100'000'000 un hunde milion

1'000'000'000 un tauzen milion

Note: The words "billion" and "milliard" are not used in Pandunia
because their meanings are different from country to country.
Instead, one should say **tauzen milion** (thousand millions) or **un giga**.

The prefixes of the International System of Units
(SI) are used in common language in Pandunia.
It is normal to say, for example:

**eite giga person bi live in Dunia.**

– Eight billion (or *milliard*) people live on Earth.

Prefix | Symbol | Base 10 | Decimal |
---|---|---|---|

deka | da | 10¹ | 10 |

heto | h | 10² | 100 |

kilo | k | 10³ | 1'000 |

mega | M | 10⁶ | 1'000'000 |

giga | G | 10⁹ | 1'000'000'000 |

tera | T | 10¹² | 1'000'000'000'000 |

peta | P | 10¹⁵ | 1'000'000'000'000'000 |

exa | E | 10¹⁸ | 1'000'000'000'000'000'000 |

zeta | Z | 10²¹ | 1'000'000'000'000'000'000'000 |

yota | Y | 10²⁴ | 1'000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000 |

### Cardinal number before noun

Quantity can be expressed with numerals and other quantity-words. They are put before the word or phrase that they qualify.

**un sing**
– one star

**du sing**
– two stars

**tri sing**
– three stars

**kam sing**
– few stars

**meni sing**
– many stars

**un dai kursi**
– one big chair

**du dai kursi**
– two big chairs

**tri dai kursi**
– three big chairs

## Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers are similar to cardinal numbers but they are placed after the noun that they modify.

**parte un**
– part one (the first part)

**parte du**
– part two (the second part)

**parte tri**
– part three (the third part)

## Classifiers of measurement

The classifier of measurement or a measure word is a word that occurs between a numeral and a noun.
It indicates how the referent of the noun is measured, contained or packaged.
Classifiers of measurement is an open class of words,
which includes, among many others,
**litre**
'liter',
**metre**
'meter',
**botle**
'bottle',
**kupa**
'cup, mug',
**pake**
'package',
**pote**
'pot',
**sake**
'bag, sack',
**tin**
'can, tin'
**tong**
'cask, barrel'.

Measure words are used in this simple structure:
number + measure word + **se** + noun.

**du litre se jus**
– two liters of juice

**tri metre se kable**
– three meters of wire

**un kupa se kafe**
– a cup of cofee

**du botle se vin**
– two bottles of wine

**tri sake se patato**
– three sacks of potatoes

**for tin se limon jus**
– four cans of lemonade

## Fractions

Fractions are formed with the help of the word
**parte**
'part'.

Fractions can be interpreted in two ways.
Firstly, the word
**parte**
can be interpreted as a classifier of measurement.
Then, for example,
**du parte tri**
is interpreted as 'two parts of three (parts)'.
Secondly, the last numeral can be understood as an ordinal number that modifies
**parte**.
Then, for example,
**du parte tri**
is interpreted as 'two thirds'.
Both interpretations lead to the same result that
**du parte tri**
stands for '2/3' in mathematical symbols.

**un parte du**
– a half (½)

**un parte for**
– one fourth, one quarter (¼)

**tri parte for**
– three fourths, three quarters (¾)

**un parte hunde**
– one hundredth, one percent (1%)

**un parte tauzen**
– one thousandth, one permille (1‰)

Fractions are connected to their noun head with
**se**.

**un parte du se haur**
– a half (of an) hour

**faif ten parte hunde se jen**
– fifty percent of people

**du parte tri se keke**
– two thirds of a cake

In addition, there is also a longer pattern for forming fractions.
It uses the pattern
**X of Y parte**
('X of Y parts').

**un of du parte**
– one of two parts, a half (½)

**un of for parte**
– one of four parts, a quarter (¼)

**tri of for parte**
– three of four parts, three quarters (¾)

**un of hunde parte**
– one of hundred parts, a percent (1%)

**un of tauzen parte**
– one of thousand parts, a permille (1‰)

## Date

#### Days of the week

Days of the week are named after celestial bodies according to the historical international system
and they include the word
**den**
('day, 24 hours').

**lunaden**– Monday**marisden**– Tuesday**merkurden**– Wednesday**mushinden**– Thursday**zukraden**– Friday**shaniden**– Saturday**solden**– Sunday

#### Months

Names of the months are made up of the number of the month and
**mes**
('month') is used.

**mes un**– January**mes du**– February**mes tri**– March**mes for**– April**mes faif**– May**mes sixe**– June**mes seven**– July**mes eite**– August**mes nain**– September**mes ten**– October**mes ten un**– November**mes ten du**– December

#### Date format

The date formats use the *ordinal number after the noun* pattern.
The day, month and year ordered from the longest period of time to the shortest, i.e. day first and year last,
or vice versa i.e. year first and day last.
Month is always in the middle.

**nen 2022 mes 9 den 17**
~
**den 17 mes 9 nen 2002**

There are also two short formats without the year.

**mes 9 den 17**
~
**den 17 mes 9**

## Time

The normal pattern for telling time is
**haur H e M**,
where H stands for hours and M stands for minutes.
We always use this direct pattern,
and we never use words like *past* and *to* in Pandunia.

**haur tri**
– three o'clock

**haur tri e siro**
– three o'clock sharp

**haur tri e faif**
– three oh-five – or five past three

**haur tri e ten**
– three ten – or ten past three

**haur tri e ten faif**
– three fifteen – or quarter past three

**haur tri e tri ten**
– three thirty – or half past three

**haur tri e for ten faif**
– three forty-five – or quarter to four

**haur tri e faif ten**
– three fifty – or ten to four

**haur tri e faif ten faif**
– three-fifty-five – or five to four

#### The 24 hour clock

Normally we use the 24 hour clock to tell the time in Pandunia.

01:00 =
**haur un**
– one o'clock ~ one hundred hours

01:15 =
**haur un e ten faif**
– one fifteen ~ one hundred fifteen hours

01:30 =
**haur un e tri ten**
– one thirty ~ one hundred thirty hours

13:00 =
**haur ten tri**
– thirteen o'clock ~ thirteen hundred hours

13:15 =
**haur ten tri e ten faif**
– thirteen fifteen ~ thirteen hundred fifteen hours

13:30 =
**haur ten tri e tri ten**
– thirteen thirty ~ thirteen hundred thirty hours

#### The 12 hour clock

The 12 hour clock splits the day into two 12 hour sections.
One lasts from midnight to noon and the second half lasts from noon to midnight.
Hours before noon are called *AM* (pronounced *ah-em*),
which comes from the phrase
**ante mide den**,
which means 'before midday'.
Hours after noon are called *PM* (pronounced *peh-em*), which comes from the phrase
**pos mide den**,
which means 'after midday'.

Before midday we say:

🕐 =
**haur un AM**
– one AM

🕜 =
**haur un e tri ten AM**
– one thirty AM

🕔 =
**haur faif AM**
– five AM

🕙 =
**haur ten AM**
– ten AM

After midday we say:

🕐 =
**haur un PM**
– one PM

🕜 =
**haur un e tri ten PM**
– one thirty PM
🕔 =
**haur faif PM**
– five PM

🕙 =
**haur ten PM**
– ten PM