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5. Nouns

Only one form

A noun is a word that refers to a concrete or abstract object, such as person, tree, house, life and speed. Like all words in Pandunia, nouns don't ever change in form. The same word form is always used, no matter whether the referred thing is singular or plural, definite or indefinite, subject or object, etc. Therefore the same Pandunia word form can correspond to many different word forms in English.

ite – a stone, stones, the stone, or the stones
meza – a table, tables, the table, or the tables
kursi – a chair, chairs, the chair, or the chairs
sui – water, the water

Number and definiteness are often known because they were previously mentioned in the conversation or because they are general knowledge. For example, normally the word sol refers to the sun and lun refers to the moon, our only sun and moon.

Indicating number

Pandunia nouns have the same form in singular (when there is one) and plural (when there is more than one). Therefore all Pandunia nouns are like the English words sheep, deer and fish, which also have only one form though they can refer to one or many things.

In Pandunia, the number is indicated only when it matters and when it is new information. It is done simply by inserting a number or a quantity word before the noun.

meme – (one or more) sheep
un meme – a sheep or one sheep
du meme – two sheep
tri meme – three sheep
men meme – many sheep

kursi – a chair or chairs
un kursi – one chair
du kursi – two chairs
tri kursi – three chairs
poli kursi – many chairs

It is possible to specify plurality also by reduplication, by saying the noun two times.

ite ite – stones and stones, a variety of stones
buku buku – books and books, a variety of books

Quantity words should not be used together with reduplication. Therefore, a phrase like men buku buku is superfluous.

Proper names

Proper names are nouns for individual people, places and other things.

Names of people can be tagged with the universal title of respect si. Using it shows respect and politeness. In Pandunia, you use it in front of someone's name.

It can be used in formal and informal situations and for all age groups, for all social groups and for all sexes and genders. The closest translation for it in English is Mr or Ms or Mx.

There are different customs concerning honorific titles in different cultures. In some cultures it is not polite to use someone's name without a title of respect. Therefore it is advisable to use si always when you meet new people from different cultures.

A title of respect can be used with a given name, a family name, or both.

si Bili King – Mx Billy King
si Bili – Mx Billy
si King – Mx King