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1. The basic rules of Pandunia

These are the basic rules of Pandunia language. They are described in more detail later in this document.

(1) World words

Pandunia is an evenly global language. International words are borrowed from all parts of the world to Pandunia. They are adapted to the pronunciation and orthography of Pandunia. One basic word is admitted and additional words are built from it according to rule 10.

(2) Spelling and pronunciation

Spelling is simple and regular. Every word is pronounced exactly as it is written. Almost every letter and letter-combination indicates always the same sound.

(3) Regular stress accent

Basic words are stressed on the syllable that is before the last consonant of the word, f.ex. háu ('good'), dúnia ('world'), básha ('language'), amén ('amen'). Compound words are stressed according to their component words so that the main component carries the primary stress and other components may carry secondary stress, f.ex. trabásha ('translate'), dúnialìsme ('globalism'), bàsha skóla ('language school'). Primary accent is indicated by an acute accent (á) and secondary accent by a grave accent (à).

(4) Pronouns

The personal pronouns are:
mi I, tu you (sg.), da he/she/it, mimen we, tumen you (pl.), damen they.

The possessive pronouns are:
mi su my, tu su your, da su his or her, mimen su our, tumen su your, damen su their.

The interrogative pronouns are: ke what or who, ke su whose.

(5) Nouns

Nouns have only one form, always the same. Their form is not affected by number, gender or case. Number is indicated by number and quantity words. Their role is indicated by word order or by a preposition.

(6) Numerals

The cardinal numbers are:
0 siro, 1 un, 2 du, 3 tri, 4 nelu, 5 lima, 6 luka, 7 cheti, 8 bati, 9 tisa, 10 des.
Greater than ten: 11 des un, 12 des du, 13 des tri, etc.
Tens: 20 du des, 30 tri des, 40 nelu des, etc.
Hundreds: 100 un sento, 200 du sento, 300 tri sento, etc.
Thousands: 1000 un kilo, 2000 du kilo, 3000 tri kilo, etc.

The ordinal numbers use the suffix me:
un me (first), du me (second), tri me (third), etc.

(7) Modifiers

The adjective and the adverb have the same form. The adjective modifier is before the noun that it modifies, and the adverb modifier is before the verb that it modifies.

un suga loga – A fast speech.
tu suga loga. – You speak fast.

(8) Verbs

The verb does not change in person, number and tense. Auxiliary verbs indicate time.

  • zai indicates an ongoing event.
  • le indicates a completed event whose results have an effect on the present situation.
  • pas indicates a completed event that has no connection to the present situation.
  • sha indicates a future event.

(9) Word order

The word order is subject–verb–object. The same order is used in declarations and questions.

A passive sentence is created with the help of the passive auxiliary verb be. A similar effect can be also reached with the impersonal pronoun men.

pandunia be loga. – Pandunia is spoken.
men loga pandunia. – One speaks Pandunia.

In the pivot structure, the object of the transitive verb functions as the subject of the following verb.
mi ching tu loga pandunia. – I ask you to speak Pandunia.

Pronouns can be left out when they are obvious and redundant.
mi ching tu loga pandunia.ching loga pandunia.
– Please speak Pandunia.

(10) Word building

In Pandunia, words change only when their actual meaning changes. Words don't ever change only to serve in a different grammatical role. Compound words are made by combining the elements that form them. The main word stands at the end.

posta ('mail') + kase ('box') = posta kase ('mailbox')