Productive word derivation

Word derivation is productive in Pandunia. Everybody can freely build new words!

Sometimes regularly derived Pandunia words differ in form and/or meaning from their English counterparts.

nas : people, folk (from Arabic ناس /nās/ )
nasi : popular
nasia : nation (similar to Afrikaans "nasie" and Russian "нация" /natsiya/ )
nasiai : national
nasiaisme : nationalism

Sometimes back-derivation leads to new words.

injenar : an engineer
injena : to engineer

Any words and affixes can be combined together. In other words, you don't have to mimic existing languages.

bud : realization, awareness, enlightenment
buda : to realize, to become aware of
budi : aware
budisme : Buddhism

Origins of Suffixes

-a

-a is the marker of verbs in SVO word order. It is a common verb ending in many natural languages, including Bengali, Swahili, Romanian and Swedish. So, there are pre-existing models for -a, but also other vowels serve as verb endings in different languages.

-ar

-ar forms nouns that denote an agent. It comes originally from Latin suffix -arius, which is present in a handful of English words including secretary (Latin: secretarius), notary (Latin: notarius) and vicar (Latin: vicarius).

This suffix is more productive in Slavic languages. It is used for example in many Serbo-Croatian words, including ribar (fisher), pekar (baker), ljekar (doctor) and novinar (journalist).

Among Romance languages, Romanian uses the suffix -ar. For example văcar (herdsman) and fierar (blacksmith). In Spanish the equivalent suffix is -ero (as in vaquero and herrero), -eiro in Portuguese (vaqueiro and ferreiro) and -eur in French.

In Germanic languages this suffix is most often written -er but the vowel is actually a schwa sound. For example, English baker and German Bäcker sound almost like Pandunia's bekar.

-e

-e is a usual noun ending in French, English and German.

-i

-i describes something that is similar to the root word. It comes from several sources.

-i is similar in sound to the adjectival ending -y in English, f.ex. watery.

In Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Hindi -ī is a very common suffix for deriving adjectives from nouns. For example islāmī = Islamic, insānī humane, pakistānī Pakistani.

In Japanese -i is a frequent adjectival suffix (of the so called i-adjectives).

Also in Hungarian -i is a productive adjectival suffix, ex. kéz = hand → kézi = manual; Európa Europe → európai European; Ázsia Asia → ásziai Asian.

-ia

-ia is a very common and wide-spread suffix. It's used in many languages in names of countries and regions. Pandunia adopts this practice.

Pandunia asia italia rusia suria turkia
English Asia Italy Russia Syria Turkey
Italian Asia Italia Russia Siria Turchia
Russian Азия
(Aziya)
Италия
(Italiya)
Россия
(Rossiya)
Сирия
(Siriya)
Турция
(Turciya)
Turkish Asya İtalya Rusya Suriye Türkiye
Arabic آسِيَا
(āsiyā)
إِيطَالِيَا
(ītāliyā)
رُوسِيَا
(rūsiyā)
سُورِيَا
(sūriyā)
تُرْكِيَّا
(turkiyā)

In Romance and Germanic languages this suffix is also productive in deriving place names from names of professions. For example in English baker → bakery, in German Bäcker → Bäckerei, in Spanish panadero → panadería, and in French boulanger → boulangerie. Pandunia adopts also this practice: bekar (baker) → bekaria (bakery).

By coincidence, Japanese has a similar sounding suffix for place names: パン (pan = bread) → パン屋 (panya = bakery).

The suffix -ia is also used with names of governments and other organizations. This is also a common practice across languages. For example imperia (empire) has parallels in Spanish imperio and Russian империя /imperiya/. Rajia (kingdom) is preceded by Hindi राज्य /rājya/. Demokratia (democracy) of course has many precedents, among others German Demokratie.

In addition -ia is used in words for abstract systems of thinking, such as science and religion. There are lots of examples in natural languages for this pattern too.

Pandunia filsofia kimia fizikia
English philosophy chemistry physics
French philosophie chimie physique
German Philosophie Chemie Physik
Arabic falsafa kīmiyā fīziyā
Swahili falsafa kemia fizikia

-isme

-isme denotes an ideology or a doctrine.

-iste

-iste is a suffix that denotes a person who tends to behave or think in a certain way. It is a common suffix in Western languages.

-o

In Slavic languages adverbs usually end in -o. Also many common Spanish and Italian adverbs end in -o.

-u

"Passive" verb ending -u comes from two important West African languages, Hausa (f.ex. soya = to fry; soyu = to be fried) and Wolof (f.ex. tëj = to close; tëju = to be closed).