Correlatives

Correlatives are the words used to ask questions which require specific answers -- the "who, what, when, where, how" of a language, and their general answers ("there, here, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere").
-- Don Harlow

In Pandunia the "correlatives" are built from separate words in a logical manner. Each "correlative" consists of a determiner and a noun.

The determiners are independent words. Basically it's an open class of words, so also other words can be used to create new "correlatives". Anyway, the most frequent determiners are listed below.

ke - what? which?
sa - this, that
yo - some
mei - every, each, all
nul - none

Basic category nouns are:

ren - person
xe - thing
yang - kind, type
lok - place
sat - time, moment

These determiners and category nouns can be combined into this table of correlatives.

Question Pointer Indefinite Universal Negative
Person ke ren
(who)
sa ren
(that person)
yo ren
(someone)
mei ren
(everyone)
nul ren
(no-one)
Thing ke xe
(what)
sa xe
(that thing)
yo xe
(something)
mei xe
(everything)
nul xe
(nothing)
Kind ke yang
(what kind of)
sa yang
(that kind of)
yo yang
(some kind of)
mei yang
(all kinds of)
nul yang
(no kind of)
Place ke lok
(where)
sa lok
(there)
yo lok
(somewhere)
mei lok
(everywhere)
nul lok
(nowhere)
Time ke sat
(when)
sa sat
(that time)
yo sat
(sometime)
mei sat
(all the time)
nul sat
(never)

Countries, peoples and languages

Pandunia uses the names that the people use to refer to themselves or their country. Sometimes they are very different than the names that other (foreign) people use. The spelling is always adapted to Pandunia.

britan - Britain
espanya - Spain (España)
barat - India (Bharat)
rusia - Russia (Rossiya) nipon - Japan (Nippon)
jungo - China (Zhōngguǒ)
misri - Egypt (Misr)
naija - Nigeria (Naijiria, Naija)

The country name can be different than the names of the peoples or ethnic groups that inhabit it.

  • britan - Britain
    • englix - English
    • skot - Scot
    • kemri - Welsh (Cymru)
  • rusia - Russia
    • rus - Russian
    • tatar - Tatar
    • baxkor - Bashkir

The word for inhabitants of the country is country name + ren (person).

britan ren - a Brit
espanya ren - a Spaniard
barat ren - an Indian

The name of a language is the name of the ethnic group + bax (language).

englix baxa - English (language)
kemri baxa - Welsh (language)
rus baxa - Russian (language)

Types of people

Guru denotes a master or an expert in a field.

darsa guru - teacher (master of learning)
din guru - priest (master of religion)
kadi guru - judge (master of justice)

Nik denotes a person is associated with the thing or quality specified by the base word. Usually the person does the thing for pleasure rather than for business.

safar nik - tourist (travel enthusiast)
moda nik - fashionista (fashion enthusiast)
musik nik - music enthusiast

Places

Kan denotes a place for public activities.

darsa kan - school (learning place)
kitaba kan - library (scripture place)
kafe kan - café (coffee place)

Also kaban (booth) can be used

Fields of science

Fields of science usually end in loji (study).

tekne loji - technology (study of techniques)
fizi loji - physics (study of the physical)
jiwa loji - biology (study of life)
bumi loji - geology (study of the ground)
dewa loji - theology (study of the god(s))

Years, months and days

Pandunia uses the international standard (ISO 8601) as the default system of expressing the date.

The date format is YYYY-MM-DD. For example the date of writing this is 2018-02-21. It is said in Pandunia **nen 2018 mes 2 dia 21.

"iso mes un" (ISO month 1)? "gregor mes un" (Gregorian month one) islam mes noi = Ramadan

We can say like this: iso nen 2018. Or "putong nen 2018" because that's the universal way to mark years. bahai u baha nen 175?