Grammar

All the phrases in this page follow these three rules:

  1. Head-last: The first word or phrase modifies the next one.
  2. Noun phrase boundary: A pause, a particle or a determiner (i.e. a numeral, a possessive pronoun or a demonstrative pronoun) begins a new noun phrase.
  3. Zero be: There is a "zero be" between two consecutive noun phrases.

Method of Presentation

Each phrase and it's translation takes three lines as follows:

  1. The phrase in Pandunia in bold letters.
  2. Word-by-word translation in cursive letters.
  3. Translation to English in normal letters.

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salam!
Greeting!
Hello!

suba salam.
Morning's greeting.
Good morning.

salam suba.
Greeted morning. Good morning.

yem salam.
Food's greeting.
Bon appetit!

salam yem.
Greeted food.
Bon appetit!

me salam ni.
My greeted, you.
I greet you.

salam ni!
Greeted you!
Hello, you!

salam mama!
Greeted mother!
Hello, mother!

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(·_·)

nam: simon.
Name: Simon.
The name is Simon.

umur: 30 nen.
Age: 30 years.
The age is 30 years.

gojia: frans.
Country: France.
The country is France.

yen rang: brun.
_Eye's color: brown.
The color of the eyes is brown.

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Pause as the "zero be"

me: simon.
I, Simon.
I am Simon.

me nam: simon.
My name, Simon.
My name is Simon.

me umur: 30 nen.
My age:, 30 year.
I'm 30 years old.

me gojia: frans.
My country, France.
I live in France.

me yen rang: brun.
My eye's color, brown.
My eyes are brown.

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"Uh" as the "zero be"

me e simon.
I, uh, Simon.
I am Simon.

me nam e simon.
My name, uh, Simon.
My name is Simon.

me umur e 30 nen.
My age, uh, 30 year.
I'm 30 years old.

me gojia e frans.
My country, uh, France.
I live in France.

me yen rang e brun.
My eye's color, uh, brown.
My eyes are brown.

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"Yes" and "no" in place of the "zero be"

A particle like ye (yes) can take the place of "zero be". It doesn't add any information when the sentence is already affirmative but it makes the structure more clear.

me ye simon.
I yes Simon.
I am Simon.

me nam ye simon.
My name yes Simon.
My name is Simon.

me umur ye 30 nen.
My age yes 30 year.
I'm 30 years old.

me gojia ye frans.
My country yes France.
I live in France.

me yen rang ye brun.
My eye's color yes brown.
My eyes are brown.

Negation is naturally done with no (not).

me no simon.
I not Simon.
I'm not Simon.

me nam no simon.
My name not Simon.
My name is not Simon.

me umur no 30 nen.
My age not 30 year.
I'm not 30 years old.

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Determiners

A variety of determiners can be used for marking the beginning of a noun phrase.

mau, hewan.
_Cat, animal.
A cat is an animal.

mau yo hewan.
_Cat, some animal.**
A cat is an animal.

mau sa hewan.
Cat, that animal.
A cat is that animal.

mau sa lil i bon dom hewan.
Cat, that little and good home's animal.
The cat is that little and good household animal.

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Talking about actions

me ama: ni.
My loved, you.
I love you.

ni: me ama
You, my loved.
You are my loved one.

More:

me lai: dom.
My arrival, home.
I come home.

me no lai: dom.
My not arrival, home.
I don't come home.

mau kaca yo mux.
Cat's prey, some mouse.
The cat preys on a mouse. (The cat catches a mouse.)

mau ja kaca la lil mux.
Cat's past prey, that little mouse.
The cat caught that little mouse.

mau no ja kaca la dai mux.
Cat's not past prey, that big mouse.
The cat didn't catch that big mouse.

mau wol kaca la dai mux.
Cat's wanted prey, that big mouse.
The cat wants to catch that big mouse.

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Making requests

me cing ni lai meme dom.
My request, your arrival, our home.
I request you to come to our house.

cing ni lai meme dom.
Request, your arrival, our home.
Please, you, come to our house.

cing: lai meme dom.
Request, arrival, our home.
Please, come to our house.

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Making questions

me kia ni lai meme dom.
My question, your arrival, our home.
I ask, did you come to our house.

kia ni lai meme dom.
Question, your arrival, our home.
Did you come to our house?

kia ni: maria?
Question, you, Maria?
Are you Maria?

kia ni e maria?
Question, you, uh, Maria?
Are you Maria?

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Other modals

ges ni suka ta.
Guess, your enjoyed, it.
Guess you enjoy it.

wang ni suka ta.
Hope you enjoy it.

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Prepositions

Basic prepositions are useful as special grammar words also in this isolating language.

me na dom.
I with home.
I'm at home.

me safar na bus ze london do paris.
My travel with bus from London to Paris.
I travel by bus from London to Paris.

simon ze paris.
Simon from Paris.
Simon is from Paris.

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Conjunctions

Union is expressed with i.

simon i maria ze paris.
Simon and Maria from Paris.
Simon and Maria are from Paris.

Constrast is expressed with a.

me no ze paris a london.
I not from Paris but London.
I'm not from Paris but London.

Alternative is expressed with u.

ta ze nairobi u zanzibar.
He/she from Nairobi or Zanzibar.
He/she is from Nairobi or Zanzibar.

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me safi la dom.
My cleaned, the house.
I clean the house.

me safi dom.
My cleaned house.
My clean house.

la safi dom.
the clean house.
The clean house.

me no safi la safi dom.
My not cleaned, the clean house.
I didn't/don't clean the clean house.

me, safi.
I, clean.
I am clean.

me es safi.
My being, clean.
I am clean.

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Adverbs and adjectives

lil buke.
Little book.
Little books.

dai buke.
Big book.
Big books.

bon buke.
Good book.
Good books.

Two adjectives that independently modify the same word are separated by i.

lil i bon buke.
Little and good book.
Little and good books.

When there are two consecutive adjectives, the first of modifies the second one.

lil bon buke.
Little good book.
Rather ("littly") good books.

dai bon buke.
Big little book.
Very ("bigly") good books.

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