The basic rules

These are the 11 basic rules of Pandunia language.

  1. The spelling follows the pronunciation exactly.
  2. The stress is placed on the syllable before the last consonant of the word.
  3. Nouns have a single, unchanging form.
  4. Adjectives come before the noun and they frequently end in -i.
  5. Compound words are formed by putting words side by side.
  6. Verbs that end in -a indicate subject-verb-object word order.
  7. Verbs that end in -u indicate object-verb-subject word order.
  8. The verbs are invariant in person and in number.
  9. In the pivot structure, the object of the transitive verb functions as the subject of the next verb.
  10. Pronouns can be left out when they are obvious and redundant.
  11. The part-of-speech marking vowel may be dropped when the role of the plain root is clear.

The rules with examples

1. The spelling follows the pronunciation exactly.

  • Each letter has always the same sound.
  • No letter is silent.
  • Only the lower-case letters are necessary for writing.

2. The stress is placed on the syllable before the last consonant of the word.

3. Nouns have a single, unchanging form.

Nouns are unaffected by number or gender. They are neither masculine nor feminine, and neither singular nor plural by default.

4. Adjectives come before the noun and they frequently end in -i.

Ex. bon pan = Good bread. pan bon = Bread good.

5. Compound words are formed by putting words side by side.

The main word stands at the end. Ex. poste sanduk = mailbox

6. Verbs that end in -a indicate subject-verb-object word order.

Ex. mi kana pan. = I eat bread.

7. Verbs that end in -u indicate object-verb-subject word order.

Ex. pan kanu mi. = Bread is eaten by me.

8. The verbs are invariant in person and in number.

  • pas (past) denotes the past tense.
  • zay (present) denotes the present tense.
  • futur (future) denotes the future tense.

9. In the pivot structure, the object of the transitive verb functions as the subject of the next verb.

Ex. mi cing tu kana kafe. = I ask you to drink coffee.

10. Pronouns can be left out when they are obvious and redundant.

  • mi kia tu baxa pandunia?kia tu baxa pandunia? = Do you speak Pandunia?
  • mi cing tu loga ming.cing loga ming. = Please speak clearly.

11. The part-of-speech marking vowel may be dropped when the role of the plain root is clear.