1. Introduction

1.1. Foreword

This grammar deals with the types of words and word order patterns in Pandunia. However, it's possible to learn Pandunia without reading this grammar, for example with the help of a phrasebook and a dictionary.

1.2. Basic Rules

  1. Every word is read as it is written. No letter is silent. Only the lower-case letters are necessary.
  2. The stress accent is on the syllable before the last consonant of the word.
  3. Nouns are unaffected by number or gender. They are neither masculine nor feminine, and neither singular nor plural by default.
  4. An adjective is placed before or after a noun and it works as a modifier.
    • ex. bon pan = Good bread. pan bon = Bread good.
  5. Compound words are made by combining the elements that form them. The main word stands at the end.
    • ex. poste sanduk = mailbox
  6. Sentences with active verbs have subject-verb-object word order. Most active verbs end in -a.
    • ex. mi penta meza. = I paint tables.
  7. A sentence with passive meaning has only a subject and a verb. Most passive verbs end in -u.
    • ex. meza pentu. = The table gets painted.
  8. The object of a transitive verb can function as the subject of the next verb in the sentence. This structure is called the pivot structure.
    • ex. mi cing tu dar pesa. = I ask you to give money.
  9. Pronouns can be left out when they are obvious and redundant.
    • mi kia tu baxa pandunia?kia tu baxa pandunia? = Do you speak Pandunia?
    • mi cing tu loga klar.cing loga klar. = Please speak clearer.

2. Nouns

2.1. Uninflected

A noun is a word that names a thing. Like all words in Pandunia, nouns are invariant. So the same form is used in singular and plural, in definite and indefinite, etc.

batu - a stone, stones, the stone or the stones
meza - a table, tables, the table or the tables
kursi - a chair, chairs, the chair or the chairs
su - water

Quite often number and definiteness is known because it was specified earlier or because it is general knowledge. For example, normally the word surya refers to the sun and luna refers to the moon, our only sun and our only moon.

2.2. Number

Nouns are unaffected by number, i.e. nouns have the same form in singular and plural.

An easy way to emphasize plurality is to repeat the noun.

batu batu - stones, lots of stones
tara tara - stars, lots of stars

2.3. Gender

Pandunia doesn't have grammatical gender (i.e. masculine, feminine and/or neuter categories).

Some words carry natural gender. For example fem (woman) is feminine and man (man) is masculine.

2.4. Compounds

Two or more nouns can be put together to make a compound word. The last word is the most meaningful word in the compound and the words that come before it only modify the meaning.

surya guang - sunlight
luna guang - moonlight
luna batu - moonstone


3. Modifiers

A modifier is a word that adds some quality or description to the thing denoted by another word, ex. good, bad, big, fast.

3.1. Adjectives

3.1.1. General

An adjective is a word that adds a particular quality for a noun. In Pandunia adjectives are usually before the noun that they modify.

day batu - big stone day meza - big table
alti meza - high table bon kursi - good chair

Adjectives can be also after the noun.

batu day. - stone big
meza alti. - table high

Naturally there can be modifiers on both sides of the noun as well.

day meza alti - big table high

3.1.3. Adjective endings

Adjectives end in -i by default. The ending is used always with words that are derived from action roots and thing roots. Ex. logi spoken, suki pleasant, kitabi written.

The ending is not applied to description roots that end in a single consonant that is easy to pronounce. Ex. bon good, sundar beautiful.

Some suffixes are also adjectival by default. These include -al. Ex. social societal.

3.2 Adverbs

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Adverbs of manner are next to the verb or at the end of the sentence.

mi bono sona. - I well sleep.
mi sona bono. - I sleep well.
tu baxa pandunia bono. - You speak Pandunia well.

3.2.2. Adverb ending

Adverbs of manner end in -o: bono well, sundaro beautifully.

3.3. Comparison

Both adjectives and adverbs can be compared.

  • max (more) indicates comparison of superiority
  • maxim (most) indicates the superlative of superiority
  • min (less) indicates comparison of inferiority
  • minim (least) indicates the superlative of inferiority
  • sem (as) indicates the comparison of equality

Particle ka relates the adverbs of comparison to the point of comparison.

mi si max bon ka tu. - I am better than you.
tu loga sem bono ka mi. - You speak as well as mi.


4. Numerals

Sometimes it is known from the context how many objects are spoken about. For example, the word surya (sun) normally refers to just one sun because there is only one.

Quantity can be expressed with numerals and other quantity-words. They are put before the word or phrase that they qualify.

un tara - one star
du tara - two stars
sam tara - three stars poli tara - several stars (two or more) xau tara - few stars multi tara - many stars

un dai meza - one big table
du dai kursi - two big chairs
sem bon kursi - three good chairs

Ordinal numbers come after the word that they modify.

fen un - the first part (part one) fen du - the second part (part two) fen sam - the third part (part three)

The basic number words are:

  • 0 nul
  • 1 un
  • 2 du
  • 3 sam
  • 4 car
  • 5 lim
  • 6 sis
  • 7 set
  • 8 bat
  • 9 noi

Greater numbers are simply made by putting one digit after another – exactly like they are written in the universal numerical language of mathematics.

  • 10 un nul or des
  • 11 un un
  • 12 un du
  • 13 un sam
  • 20 du nul
  • 21 du un
  • 22 du du
  • 100 un nul nul or hon
  • 101 un nul un or hon un
  • 200 du nul nul or du hon

Numbers that are greater than 999 may use the multiples from the International System of Units. So for example kilo denotes a multiple of a thousand.

  • 1000 kilo
  • 1 000 000 mega
  • 1 000 000 000 giga
  • 1 000 000 000 000 tera
  • 1015 peta
  • 1018 eksa
  • 1021 zeta
  • 1024 yota

5. Pronouns

5.1. Personal pronouns

Pronouns can substitute thing-words and phrases of thing-words.

mi - I, mi
tu - you
ye - he, she, it
mimen - we
tumen - you all
yemen - they

se - self

Note! The reflexive pronoun se is used for all persons, so it corresponds to English myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves_ and themselves all at once.

mi vida se - I see myself.
ye vida se - She sees herself. / He sees himself. / It sees itself.
mimen vida se. - We see ourselves.

5.2. Demonstrative pronouns

Sa is the general demonstrative pronoun. It covers the meaning of both this and that.

The distance to the speaker can be specified by adding words jin (near) and far (far), if needed.

sa - this or that
sa jin - this over here
sa far - that over there

The demonstrative pronouns work like modifiers.

sa batu. - That stone
sa si batu. - That is a stone.
sa batu cung. - That stone is heavy.

5.3. Interrogative pronoun

Ke is a general-purpose interrogative pronoun. It does the job of English words who, what and which.

ke? - Who or what?
ke xe? - What? (Which thing?)
ke jen? - Who? (Which person?)
ke sat? - When? (What time?)
ke yang? - How? (What manner?)
ke koz? - Why? (What cause?)


6. Verbs

6.1. General

A verb denotes an action or an occurence, ex. to eat, to speak, to look and to think.

Pandunia has two types of verb: verbs that end in -a and verbs that end in -u. The endings decide the order of the other constituents (subject and object) in the sentence. So the sentence structure depends on the type of the verb.

6.2. Verbs that end in -a

Verbs that end in -a use this triangular pattern.

Word order triangle for verbs that end in -a

  V
 ↗ ↘
S ← O

6.2.1. SVO order

The most common word order in Pandunia is subject-verb-object (SVO). In this sentence structure the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

subject-verb-object

  V
 ↗ ↘
S   O

Examples:
mi vida yemen. - I see them.
tu baka pan. - You bake bread.

6.2.2. OSV order

The second structure in this triangle is OSV. It is frequent in dependant clauses.

object-subject-verb

  V
 ↗ 
S ← O

For example: mi yem pan, jo tu baka. - I eat bread that you baked.

6.2.3. VOS order

The third structure of this triangle is VOS, which is rarely used.

verb-object-subject

  V
   ↘
S ← O

6.3. Verbs that end in -u

Verbs that end in -u use this triangular pattern.

Word order triangle for verbs that end in -u

  V
 ↗ ↘
O ← S

6.3.1. SOV order

SOV order is commonly used alternative for SVO order.

subject-object-verb

  V
 ↗ 
O ← S

Examples:
mi yemen vidu. - I them see.
tu pan baku. - You bread bake.

6.3.2. OVS order

OVS order is common in "passive" sentences.

object-verb-subject

  V
 ↗ ↘
O   S

Examples:
pan baku tu. - Bread is baked by you.
tu suku mi. - You are delighted by mi.

6.3.3. VSO order

VSO order is very rare but possible.

verb-subject-object

  V
   ↘
O ← S

6.3. Passive sentences

In passive sentence there is only object and verb but no subject (i.e. agent).

mi vidu. - I am seen.
pan baku. - Bread is baked.
kop kaputu. - Cup breaks. (Cup gets broken.)

6.4. Verb endings

Most verbs end in -a and -u. A handful of verbs are without a standard ending.


8. Sentences

8.1. Observations

Observations are the simplest sentence type. They may consist of only one word, which draws the listener's attention to it.

mau! - A cat!
pluva! - (It) rains!

8.2. Stative Sentences

8.2.1. With pronoun subject

Normally a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. In the simplest sentences, the subject is a personal pronoun and the predicate is an adjective or a noun.

mi bon. - I am good.
ye novi. - It is new.
ye sara. - She is Sara.

The word no is added to form the negative.

mi no bon. - I'm not good.
ye no novi. - It's not new.
ye no sara. - She is not Sara.

Also two personal pronouns can be juxtaposed.

mi si ye. - I am he/she.
mi no tu. - I'm not you.

8.2.2. With noun subject

When the subject is a noun, the word si (yes) is added before the predicate in positive sentences. The negative sentences use no like above.

sara si bon. - Sara is good.
batu si day. - The stone is big.
meza si novi. - The table is new.
meza no purani. - The table is not old.

8.2.3. With adjective subject

The same rule applies also for two adjectives.

jovan si sundar. - Young is beautiful.
novi no purani. - New is not old.

8.2.4. To be

Pandunia doesn't use a verb like "to be" in English.

8.3. Active Sentences

In predicates of action, the main word in the predicate is a verb (i.e. an action-word). In Pandunia, verbs are easy to identify because most of them end in -a or -u.

Active sentences that use a verb ending in -a have the subject–verb–object word order (SVO).

mi yem pingo. - I eat apples.
mi auda musik. - I hear music.
mi vida tu. - I see you.

Verbs ending in -u are used in the subject–object–verb word order (SOV).

mi pingo yemu. - I apples eat.

SOV and SVO are the two most common word orders by far in the languages of the world. SOV is used in languages like Hindi-Urdu, Tamil, Turkish, Japanese and Korean. SVO is used in English, Spanish, Mandarin Chinese, Indonesian and Modern Arabic among others.

8.4. Passive Sentences

8.4.1. OV order

In the passive voice there is no agent subject in the sentence. There is only the object and the verb. Normally the passive is expressed with object–verb (VO) word order with the verb ending in -u.

tu vidu. - You are seen.
musik audu. - Music is heard.
pan baku. - Bread is baked.

Here the focus is on the object, which is the first word in the sentence. The object is a passive actor that undergoes the action.

The agent can be mentioned after the verb with or without the preposition de.

tu vidu mi. - You are seen by me.
tu vidu de mi. - You are seen by me.

8.4.2. OV order

In verb–object (VO) order the focus is on the verb.

vida tu. - Seeing you.
auda musik. - Listening music.
baka pan. - Baking bread.

8.5. All Possible Word Orders

There are six possible word orders for the transitive sentence. In practice, all of them are possible in Pandunia. They are made possible by the two verb endings, which decide the order of the other constituents (subject and object).

Different orders put the focus on different constituents: the subject, the object or the verb. The focus or emphasis is on the first part of a sentence.

1. With the verb ending in -a
    - object–subject–verb (OSV) : musik mi auda.
    - subject–verb–object (SVO) :       mi auda musik.
    - verb–object–subject (VOS) :          auda musik mi.
2. With the verb ending in -u
    - subject-object-verb (SOV) : mi musik audu.
    - object-verb-subject (OVS) :    musik audu mi.
    - verb-subject-object (VSO) :          audu mi musik.

The constituent, which is further away from the verb, can be left out. So for example musik mi auda (OSV) can be truncated to mi auda (SV). Likewise mi musik audu (SOV) can be truncated to musik audu (OV).

The typical word orders in everyday Pandunia are SVO, SOV and OSV. The other word orders can be heard in poetry and in other forms of literary language.

8.6. Pivot structure

8.6.1. Basic pivot structure (SVOVO)

In the pivot structure the word order is:
subject – verb 1 – object 1 – verb 2 – object 2.

Object 1 functions has dual role. It is at the same time the object for verb 1 and the subject for verb 2.

mi vol tu yem sabze. - I want you eat vegetables.

In the example above, mi vol has tu as its object. At the same time, tu functions as the subject of the following predicate, yem sabze. So tu is the pivot of the entire sentence.

8.7. Serial verbs

All action-words (verbs) that come one after another are activated by the subject. There can be two, three or even more action-words in series.

  1. mi go dom. - I go home.
  2. mi ken go dom. - I can go home.
  3. mi vol ken go dom. - I want to be able to go home. (Lit. I want can go home!)

8.8. Pronoun dropping

In certain types of expressions the pronouns get dropped for brevity. This is done especially in commands and requests.

8.8.2. Short pivot structure (VOVO)

mi kia tu baxa pandunia. - I ask do you speak Pandunia.
kia tu baxa pandunia? - Do you speak Pandunia.

8.8.3. Short pivot structure (VVO)

mi cing tu lay dom. - I ask you to come home.
cing lay dom! - Please come home! (Literally: Request come home!)


9. Particles

9.1. Affirmation and Negation

9.1.1. Affirmative

Particle si is affirmative and no is negative. si affirms the existence of something, whereas no denies it. In other words si means "to be" or "there is" and no means "not to be" or "there is not".

Expressions are affirmative by default, so the word si is not always necessary. However it is especially convenient in expressions of state.

mi si jen. - I am a person.
ye si novi meza. - It is a new table.

9.1.2. Negative

Such sentences can be simply negated with no.

mi no jen. - I'm not a person.
ye no novi meza. - It's not a new table.

The word no is used for denying anything. It affects always the next word.

mi vida tu. - I see you.
mi no vida tu. - I don't see you.
mi vida no tu ama yemen. - I see, not you, but them.

The particles si and no are used also for answering questions.

kia tu vida mi? - Do you see me?
si. (mi vida tu.) - Yes. (I see you.)
no. (mi no vida tu.) - No. (I don't see you.)

Modifier particles

Particles ge and de are used to mark possession and modification. Ge connects the modifying word or phrase to the modified word. De works in the opposite direction. It connects the modified word to the modifier.

9.2.1. Possession

The modifier particle can be used for any possessive noun or pronoun.

With regards to possession, ge works like apostrophe-s ('s) in English.

maria ge mama - Maria's mother
mi ge bet - my house
mi ge papa ge bet - my father's house

De works like "of" in English.

mama de maria - the mother of Maria bet de mi - the house of mine
bet de papa de mi - the house of the father of mine

9.2.2. Attribution with adjectives

Another way to use these particles is to connect an adjective or other words with a noun. It gives us more information about the noun, and the particle makes it clear in which end the main noun is.

The modifier particles are useful for creating complex adjectives that consists of two or more words.

roza rang ge lab - rose-colored lips
saman rang ge mat - sky-colored eyes

Or in the opposite order:

lab de roza rang - lips of the color of the rose
mat de saman rang - eyes of the color of the sky

9.2.3. Relative clauses

Also relative clauses are created with help of the modifier particles.

Here de has a similar role as English relative pronouns which, that, who and whom.

ye si man de mi vida. - He is the man that I saw.

If the relative clause is missing a subject but contains an object (i.e. if the verb is transitive), the main-clause noun is the implied subject of the relative clause.

mi vida man de yem pingo. - I see a man who eats apples.

It's possible to construct relative clauses with ge too. Then the relative clause precedes the noun that it modifies. The verb is turned into a modifier by putting ge immediately after the verb.

mi vida pingo yemu ge man. - I see an apple-eating man.

9.3. Modal Particles

Modal particles indicate what the speaker thinks about s/he says in relation to the listener. Modal particles are commonly used in many languages. East Asian languages, including Chinese and Japanese, use famously sentence-final particles.

In Pandunia, a modal particle modifies the subsequent word, or the whole sentence, when the modal particle is the last word in the sentence.

The particle plus (also) is a good example because it functions much like in English.

ye yem bir plus. - S/he drinks beer, also.
ye yem plus bir. - S/he drinks also beer.
ye plus yem bir. - S/he also drinks beer.
plus ye yem bir. - Also s/he drinks beer.

Modal particles can modify all kinds of words, including pronouns and numerals, which adjectives can't modify.

9.4. Tense and Aspect Particles

In Pandunia, tense can be expressed with time words and time phrases if needed. The general time words are gon (past), nun (present) and futur (future). They function like adjectives and adverbs, so typically their place is before the verb or at the end of the sentence.

mi ha mau gon. - I had cats in the past. ama mi no ha mau nun. - But I don't have cats now. munkin mi ha mau futur. - Maybe I have cats in the future.

Note! Verbs are not conjugated. So the verb ha stayed the same in all tenses in the examples above.

Naturally time words are used only when they are necessary. Usually it is enough to mention the time just once at the beginning of the text and not in every single sentence, if the tense doesn't change.


10. Prepositions

10.1. Prepositions of place and time

Pandunia has three prepositions of place and time.

  1. na - location or moment (in general): at, in, on, during
  2. ze - origin or beginning: from, since
  3. do - destination or end: to, till, until

Prepositions are not used as frequently in Pandunia as in English. In many phrases, the verb says enough alone.

mi lay dom. - I come home.
tu sit kursi. - You sit (on) the chair.
ye lala sofa. - S/he lies (on) the sofa.
maci nata daria. - Fish swim (in) the sea.
janger marca dau. - Warriors march (on) the road.

A preposition begins a prepositional phrase. In a simple prepositional phrase the preposition is complemented by a pronoun or a noun phrase.

mi na hotel. - I'm in the hotel.
mi son na hotel. - I sleep in the hotel.
mi son ze cam do suba. - I sleep since evening until morning.
mi safar ze london do paris. - I travel from London to Paris.

Prepositions can be complemented also by a verb phrase. Then they refer to time.

mi deng ze tu go. - I have waited since you left.
mi deng do tu lay dom. - I wait until you come home.
mi deng na tu son. - I wait while you sleep.

More precise expressions of place and time are expressed with a preposition + a place word + de.

na dur de - for the time/duration of
mi deng na dur de tu son. - I wait for the time when you sleep.
na lok de - at the place of
mi deng na lok de tu toka. - I wait at the place where you left.
na xia de - under, below
un waf lala na xia de meza. - A dog lies under the table.
na par de - on the surface of
un mau lala na par de meza. - A cat lies on the table.

Similar meaning can be expressed also with compound words.

un mau lala na meza par. - A cat lies at the tabletop.

In addition, a preposition can be followed immediately by a verb.

dur - to last, to take time mi deng na dur de tu son. - I wait during you sleep.

10.2. Prepositions of manner

Preposition bi indicates means. It corresponds to English prepositions with and by (by means of). The meaning of bi is very broad. Often it is followed by another word that defines the meaning more precisely.

mi kata pan bi caku. - I cut bread with a knife.
mi kata pan bi uza caku. - I cut bread by using a knife.

Prepositions ka indicates manner or style. It corresponds to English prepositions like, than, as and as if.

mi saba pandunia ka guru. - I know Pandunia like a master.

Ka relates the verb or the adjective to a point of comparison. In the above example sabi (know) is the verb and guru (master) is the point of comparison.

Ka is also used when adjectives are compared.

ban si min dai ka papa. - The child is smaller than the father.
opa si sem dai ka papa. - Grandfather is as big as father.

Ka relates the adverbs of comparison – max (more), min (less) and sem (same) – to the point of comparison, which is papa (father) in the examples above.

10.3. List of compound prepositions

na ante before. na bada after.
na cen in front. na pice behind.
na xia under, below. na gau over, above.
na jin near. na far far away. na visin beside, next to.

11. Word Building

It's possible to build new words in Pandunia. Pandunia has a productive system of word derivation. Most of the suffixes that are used in Pandunia are already in international use. Many of hem come from ancient Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian.

11.1. Part of speech markers

Pandunia uses vowel endings for quick word derivation. In this system the final vowel of a word marks the type of the word. The system applies mainly to those words, which are derived from verb roots and adjective roots. Some adjectives are also derived from nouns.

Dynamic verbs end in -a and -u. From the narrow perspective of a phrase that consists of only a subject and a verb, it can be said that -a marks an active verb and -u marks a passive verb. So loga means to speak and logu means to be spoken.

-i is the marker of adjective and adjectival verb (i.e. static verb). For example, from the verb loga (to speak) we get the adjective logi (spoken, wordy). From the noun manux (human being), we get the adjective manuxi (human, having the attributes of a human being). However, only derived adjectives need to end in -i. Words that are adjectives by nature don't need the ending. That's why for example nov (new) and sundar (beautiful) are without the ending.

-e is the marker of nouns. It means the result of the process. So loge means the speech that results from the act of speaking. Quite often -e is left out and so log would mean the same thing as loge.

The designated vowel endings enable easy derivation of one type of word from another. An ending is simply changed to another ending.

Here are some examples.

loga - to speak (active verb)
logu - to be spoken (passive verb)
logi - spoken, wordy (adjective)
loge or log - speech, word(s) (noun)

kitaba - to write (active verb)
kitabu - to be written (passive verb)
kitabi - written, textual (adjective)
kitabe or kitab - writing, text (noun)

nov or novi - new (adjective)
novo - newly (adverb)
nova - to make new (active verb)
novu - to become new (passive verb)
nove - novelty, new thing (noun)

There is a handful of verbs, which appear without the ending. These are some of the most common verbs in Pandunia.

hav or hava - to have (active verb)
havu - to belong (passive verb)
have - that what is had (noun)

mus - to must, to be compelled (passive verb)
musa - to compel (active verb)
musi - compulsory, obligatory

Pandunia has a system of word derivation with final vowels that is applied on action roots and description roots. Usually it's not applied on thing roots and name roots, and also pronouns, conjuctions, numerals and particles are unaffected. However there are exceptions.

  • a marks verbs for subject-verb-object word order (SVO)
  • u marks verbs for object-verb-subject word order (OVS)
  • i marks adjectives i.e. modifiers of nouns
  • o marks adverbs i.e. modifiers of verbs, adjectives and other adverbs
  • e marks nouns that are derived from action roots and description roots

11.1.2. Deriving verbs

  1. If the root is an action, then its verbal form will mean "to do the action". For example from vide = "a look" we get vida = "to look".
  2. If the root is a description, like nov- (novi = new), then its verbal form will mean "to turn into that quality". For example from novi = "new" we get nova = "to make new" or "to renew".
  3. If the root is some kind of tool or apparatus, then its verbal form will mean "to use the tool (in usual manner)". For example hamar (hammer) gives hamara = "to hammer".

11.1.3. Deriving modifiers

If the root word is a description, then its adjectival form will mean "that which is in the state of the root". For example from nov- = quality of novelty, we get novi = new i.e. that which is new. The corresponding adverb will be novo = newly or in a new way.

If the root is an action, then its adjectival form will mean the state that is produced by the action. For example from loga = "to speak" we get logi = "spoken". The corresponding adverb will be logo = in a spoken way, orally.

If the root is a thing, an object or a person, then its adjectival form will mean "that which is like the root".

If the root is a place word, then it's adjectival form will mean "that which is from that place". Examples: Iran, irani = "Iranian".

11.1.4. Deriving nouns

If the root word is an action, then its noun form will mean the product of the action. For example from kitab- = "to write" we get kitabe = "writing" or "text".

If the root word is a description, then its noun form will mean a concrete instance of that quality. For example from nov- = "new" we get nove = "a novelty" i.e. something new.

Additional noun suffixes are presented below.

11.2. Derivational Suffixes

11.2.1. -al

Creates adjectives from action and thing roots. The resulting adjective indicates relationship of having or likeness.

norme norm, rule; normal normal, regular, that which has rules.
tabia nature; tabial natural, that which is or behaves like the nature.

11.2.2. -an

When applied to place name roots, it denotes something or someone that belongs to, comes from, or is related to that place.

amerika America; amerikan American
europa Europe; europan European
asia Asia; asian Asian rusia Russia; rusian Russian, of Russia

11.2.3. -ar

Creates agent nouns from action roots. It denotes a person or a tool whose job, task or role is to perform the action of that verb.

loga to speak; logar speaker, the one who speaks
baka to bake; bakar baker, the one who bakes
lida to lead; lidar leader, the one who leads
komputa to compute, to process data; komputar computer
marta to kill; martar killer

11.2.4. -ur

Creates undergoer nouns from action roots. It denotes the passive participant, which undergoes the action of that verb.

kriata to create; kriatur creature, the one who is created
marta to kill; martur the one who gets killed; by extension: a martyr

11.2.5. -es

Creates abstract nouns from adjectives, denoting "state of being".

novi new; noves newness
rik rich; rikes richness

11.2.6. -ia

Creates aggregate nouns. It denotes a group of elements named by the root as a whole.

manux human being; manuxia humanity, mankind, all the human beings as a group.
kristi Christian, kristia Christianity, all Christians as a group.
filsofe view, outlook, life wisdom; filsofia philosophy, the discipline of wisdom.

This ending is often found in place names, especially in country names. However this use is not systematic and it's not required. There are also a lot of country names that do not end in -ia.

arab Arab, Arabic; arabia Arabia
rus Russian; rusia Russia
turki Turk, Turkish; turkia Turkey
asia Asia
indonesia Indonesia
italia Italy

11.2.7. -iz-

Causative suffix.

11.2.8. -ul-

Creates verbs that reverse the meaning of the base verb.

liga to tie; ligula to untie
ziba to plug, to close with a plug; zibula to unplug, to open the plug.

12. Other Topics

Sentence Word Orders

In theory, there are six possible word orders for the transitive sentence. In practice, all of them are possible in Pandunia. They are made possible by the two verb endings, which decide the order of the other constituents (subject and object).

1. With the verb ending in -a
    - object–subject–verb (OSV) : musik mi auda.
    - subject–verb–object (SVO) :       mi auda musik.
    - verb–object–subject (VOS) :          auda musik mi.
2. With the verb ending in -u
    - subject-object-verb (SOV) : mi musik audu.
    - object-verb-subject (OVS) :    musik audu mi.
    - verb-subject-object (VSO) :          audu mi musik.

The constituent, which is further away from the verb, can be left out. So for example musik mi auda (OSV) can be truncated to mi auda (SV). Likewise mi musik audu (SOV) can be truncated to musik audu (OV).

The typical word orders in everyday Pandunia are SVO, SOV and OSV. The latter occurs frequently in dependant clauses, for example in mi vida jen, jo tu suku. (I saw the person whom you like.) The other word orders can be heard in poetry and in other forms of literary language.

Hierarchy of Word Types

Spoken language is a flow of sounds which constitute words. Written language, in the case of Pandunia, is a flow of letters from left to right, which constitute words. So every expression is essentially a sequence of words. However all words are not equal. There is a hierarchy of words. The verb is the structural center of a sentence and other words are directly or indirectly connected to it.

Each sentence can be drawn as a tree diagram, where the central words are above and the dependant words are below. For example the sentence mi vida tu (I see you) can be pictured as a tree as follows.

mi vida tu.

   vida
  ┌─┴─┐
 mi   tu

Adjectives and numerals point to their head word, the noun.

mi vida sam jovan jen.

   vida
  ┌─┴──┐
 mi   jen
       |
     jovan
       |
      sam

The hierarchy of word types in Pandunia from the more to the less central is as follows.

  1. Conjunctions: i, u
  2. Connectors: ge, de
  3. Coverbs (prepositions): na, do, ze, bi
  4. Verbs
  5. Nouns and pronouns
  6. Tense, aspect and mood particles
  7. Numerals
  8. Adjectives

The following example shows how the scope affects the final position of words in the tree hierarchy. For example, although i is in general higher than koz, here its scope is only to connect yusef and sara. Ze koz de is at the top, because it connects the two sub-phrases.

yusef i sara vol darsa pandunia ze koz de ye si bon dunia bax.

                  ze koz de
           ┌──────────┴──────────┐
          vol                   si
      ┌────┴──────┐           ┌──┴──┐
      i         darsa        ye    bax
  ┌───┴───┐    ┌──┴────┐            |
yusef   sara       pandunia       dunia
                                    |
                                   bon