The Basic Latin alphabet is used for writing Pandunia. Here is the alphabet of Pandunia followed by the symbols of the Internation Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Pandunia: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z
IPA:     [a b ʃ d e f g h i ʒ k l m n o p r s t u v w x j z]

Pandunia, like Spanish, is pronounced exactly as it is spelt. No letter is silent. Every letter has one sound, always the same.

Vowel Sounds

Pandunia has five vowels.

i   u
e   o
  a

They are pronounced as follows: a like in palm, e like in hey, i like in machine, o like in boy and u like in rude. They are pure vowels, so their quality doesn't change over the duration of the vowel.

Semivowels y and w are pronounced like in English.

Consonant Sounds

p  b  f  v  m  w
t  d  s  z  n  l  r
      c  j     y
k  g  x  h  ng

Most consonants are pronounced same as in English. So the pronunciation of b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, z is familiar and easy.

The following consonants are pronounced differently in Pandunia than in English.

  • c is always pronounced like SH in ship.
  • j is pronounced like Z in measure or the J in the French greeting bon jour.
  • g is always hard like in girl, get.
  • r is preferably trilled like in Scottish English or Spanish carro. Also other pronunciations are acceptable. Note that r is never silent!
  • s is always voiceless like in sissy. z is voiced like in zoo.
  • x is a gargling sound. It sounds like the ch in "loch" when it is pronounced by a real Scot.
  • n is pronounced with the tip of the tongue except in combinations nk and ng, where it is velar /ŋ/ like in banker and finger. In the end of a word, the g in ng can be silent. So the word pang can be pronounced /paŋ/ as well as /paŋg/.

Letter combination tc is pronounced like ch in chip and dj is pronounced like the English J.

Stress Accent

The stress is on the syllable, which is before the last consonant.

  1. Words with only one syllable carry the stress. Ex. MAU, TONG.
  2. The stress is on the last syllable in words that end with a consonant. Ex. koMUN, baZAR, kaMIS.
  3. The stress is on the second last syllable in words that end with a vowel. Ex. DUnia, meLOdi

Schwa

Schwa is a short, unstressed and neutral vowel, which can be added after a consonant to make pronunciation easier in spoken language. It is never written in Pandunia. However, the symbol /ə/ is used for the schwa in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

For example, some people can ease the pronunciation of words like sam and kop, which end in consonants, by adding a schwa sound in the end like this /samə/, /kopə/. If words like that are difficult to you, it's better to add a schwa than to "swallow" the last consonant.

The schwa is always unstressed and it doesn't ever change the place of the stress.

Letter Case

Pandunia is normally written only in small letters (i.e. lower case letters). Capital letters can be in the beginning of sentences and proper nouns, such as personal names and place names, but it is not required.

There are three reasons why capital letters are not necessary.

  1. Writing represents speech and there are no "capital sounds" in speech in beginning of proper names etc.
  2. Most of the scripts and alphabets of the world have only one letter case.
  3. It is simpler to use only small letters.

Note! It's not a mistake to use the capital letters. Sometimes people do it habitually because they are used to them in other languages. But still capital letters are unnecessary and not recommended.

Capital letters are used in standard international acronyms. For example: 10 Mb (des mega bit), 100 Gb (hon giga bit), 2 mm (du mili metre), 1 kJ (un kilo jul).

Syllabification

[-] Words may be divided into syllables with a hyphen. The hyphen is placed between spoken syllables. For example: bin, ka-fe, yu-mor, pos-ta.

Punctuation

[.] All kinds of sentences may end with a full stop.

[?] Questions may end alternatively with a question mark.

[!] Exclamation mark indicates loudness or emphasis.

[...] Three dots (i.e. ellipsis) may be used to indicate incomplete sentence or uncertainty.

[:] Colon indicates the beginning of an explanation or a list.

[,] Comma indicates a small pause or separation between clauses or listed items.

In informal texts smileys, emoticons and emojis may be used to indicate mood. For example :) indicates happiness and :( indicates sadness.

mi vide ti :) = I see you. mi no vide ti :( = I don't see you.