Introduction

Pandunia is a constructed language that is designed to be relatively easy for everyone. You can learn it fast with this practical course.

English speakers will find it easy to make basic sentences in Pandunia as the word order is generally the same as in English, there are no definite or indefinite articles, no verb "to be", and no complicated rules about changing the form of words to express singular and plural or the tense of verbs.

The course consists of short lessons. Each lesson introduces one new word, which is used in several different phrases in the lesson. This is to teach you how the word works as part of sentences. Possibly you will encounter also other new words in the same lesson but don't worry about them! You don't have to learn all of them at once. Just memorize the phrases that are useful for you! Maybe the rest will go to your memory subconciously.

You can study this course together with one or several friends. Read the phrases together and try to make small conversations. You can also study alone. Even then it's useful to read out loud and create conversations. Repeat the same phrases several times today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow and so on. As they say, repetition is the mother of learning.

Note! Many lessons include also tips and notes like this. They are there to clarify grammatical details for those who are interested. You can skip over them if they are not helpful. You don't have to know the theory of the language. You can just speak Pandunia!

Part 1: Greeting and basics

salam greet, greeting

salam Hello!

salam sube! Good morning!

salam den! Good day!

salam xam! Good evening!

salam noce! Good night!

salam nyam! Bon appetit!

salam lay! Welcome!

salam cute! Goodbye!

salam safar! Have a safe journey!

salam son! Sleep well!

As you can see from the range of expressions, salam is a general word for well-wishing. Use it any time!

Salam is a popular greeting that is used by both religious and non-religious people in many different countries around the world.

Etymology. salam is from Arabic: سَلَام‏ "salām", Hebrew: שָׁלוֹם‏ "šalom", Turkish: selam, Hindi: सलाम "salām", Swahili: salaam, Indonesian: selamat.

me I, me

me sara. I'm Sara.

me tomas. I'm Thomas.

You can introduce yourself simply by saying me and your name. You don't need a verb for saying it in Pandunia!

me salama mame. I greet mother.

me salama pape. I greet father.

The word salam is a noun and salama is the corresponding verb. The basic word order in Pandunia is subject-verb-object.

sara salama tomas. Sara greets Thomas.

salam mame! Greetings, mother!

salam pape! Greetings, father!

Etymology. me is from English: me, Hindi: मैं (meṇ), Spanish: me.

te you

te tomas. You are Thomas.

me salama te. I greet you.

te salama me. You greet me.

Pronouns don't ever change their form in Pandunia. That's why me is the same in subject and object positions while English has two different forms, 'I' and 'me'.

me ama te. I love you.

Etymology. te is from Hungarian: te, Russian: ты (ty), Italian: te, French: te.

le he, she or it

le man. He is a man.

le fem. She is a woman.

le aple. It is an apple.

le is the general third person pronoun. It is used for people (irrespective of gender) as well as for things.

me salama le. I greet him/her.

Etymology. le is from French: elle, Spanish: él.

eska to ask a question

eska te tomas? Are you Thomas?

eska te dotor? Are you a doctor?

Tip: Yes/no questions frequently begin with eska. It is just a regular verb, not a special question tag. In fact, the previous question is simply abbreviated from me eska te dotor. (I ask, you doctor?) by dropping out the first word.

eska te bon? How are you? (Literally: Are you good?)
me bon. I'm good.
eska te? And you?
me ni bon. I'm not good.

Etymology. eska is from French: est-ce que /ɛskə/, Haitian Creole: èske, English: ask.

si yes

eska te tomas? Are you Thomas.

si, me tomas. Yes, I am Thomas.

eska le dotor? Is he/she a doctor?

si, le dotor. Yes, he is a doctor.

The word si can be used also for stating something as a fact. Then it is used in place of "to be".

me si tomas. I am Thomas.

te si sara. You are Sara.

aple si pal. The apple is a fruit.

Etymology. si is from Spanish: sí, Portuguese: sim, Mandarin: 是 "shì", Shanghaiese: 是 "sí".

ni not

me ni sara. I'm not Sara.

me ni dotor. I'm not a doctor.

eska te bon? Are you well?
si. me bon. Yes, I'm well.

eska te bon? Are you well?
ni. me ni bon. No, I'm not well.

You can use ni to deny anything. It is placed before the word that is denied.

le ni salama me. He/she doesn't greet me.

Etymology. ni is from Ukrainian: ні (ni), Afrikaans: nie, Polish: nie, Spanish: ni, French: ni.

Plurals

Plural pronouns are created like this: me (I) → mome (we)
te (you) → tote (you all)
le (he, she, it) → lole (they)

mome salama tote. We greet you all.

tote salama lole. You greet them.

lole salama mome! They greet us.

mome fem. We are women.

tote man. You are men.

lole aple. They are apples.

ke? what? who?

ke? What?

te ke? Who are you?
me tomas. I'm Thomas.

le ke? Who is he/she?
le sara. She is Sara.

tote ke? Who are you people?

lole ke? Who are they?

Etymology. ke is from Spanish: qué, Portuguese: que, Italian: che, Bengali: কী "ki".

ce this, that

ce ke? / ke ce? What's this?

ce aple. This is an apple.

ce ros aple. This is a red apple.

ci aple ros. This apple is red.

Note: When an adjective, like ros, is placed before a noun, it works as a modifier. When it follows the noun, it works as an adjectival verb.

ce ros. This is red.

ya 's (possessive particle)

ce ke? What's this?

ce me ya fon. It's my phone.

ce ke ya? Whose is this?

ce me ya. It's mine.

Note: Possessive particle ya is put between the owner and the owned thing. So me ya means "my", te ya means "your" and so on.

le ke? Who's he/she?

le si me ya doste. He/she is my friend.

me si sara ya doste. I am Sara's friend.

Etymology. ya Mandarin: 有 (yǒu), Hakka: 有 (ya).

nam name

ti nam si ke? What's your name?

mi nam si tomas. My name is Thomas.

li nam si ke? What is his/her name?

li nam si sara. Her name is Sara.

me namu tomas. I'm called Thomas.

Etymology. nam is from Hindi: नाम "nām", Farsi: نام‏‎ "nām", Thai: นาม "naam", Indonesian: nama, Japanese: 名前 "namae", German: Name, English: name.

soya have

me soya bon dom. I have a good house.

le ni soya pese. He/she doesn't have money.

me wola soya nowi fon. I want to have a new phone.

eska te soya bace? Do you have children?
me soya dul bace. I have two children.

jana to know

me jana le. I know him/her.

eska te jana ci ren? Do you know that person?

eska tote jana unale? Do you know each other?

mome jana unale da long. We know each other for long.

helpe help

me nida helpe. I need help.

eska te bila helpa me? Can you help me?

eska me bila helpa te? Can I help you?

me wola helpa te. I want to help you.

Part 2: Eating

nyama consume, eat, drink

eska te wola nyama koy? Would you like to eat something?

le nyama aple. He/she eats an apple.

lole nyama aple. They eat apples.

Note: Unlike English, Pandunia doesn't have separate singular and plural forms. Therefore a word like aple can refer to one or more apples.

eska te nyama kafe? Do you drink coffee?

me nyama kafe. I drink coffee.

Tip: Meaning of nyama covers both eating and drinking. It can feel odd at first but soon you will see that it is quite handy! Usually the object of the verb tells is it about eating, drinking or both.

me nyama kafe i pang. I'm having coffee and bread.

wola want

eska te wola nyama? Would you like to eat?

te wola nyama ke? What would you like to eat?

Tip: While English puts the "what" at the beginning of a question, in Pandunia the word order is not affected by the ke.

me wola nyama kafe. I want to drink coffee.

eska te wola nyama cay? Would you like to drink tea?
ni. me ni wola cay. me wola kafe. No, I don't want tea. I want coffee.

te wola ki aple? Which apple do you want?
ci ros. This red one.

bita request, please

me bita te nyama cay. I ask you to drink tea.

me bita te laya dom. I ask you to come home.

me bita te helpa me. I ask you to help me.

Tip: To make direct requests, drop all the pronouns.

bita nyama cay. Please, have some tea!

bita nyama kafe. Please, have some coffee!

bita laya dom. Please, come home!

bita helpa me. Please, help me.

danke thanks

danke! Thanks!

danka te. Thank you.

me danka te. I thank you.

me danka te helpa me. I thank you for helping me.

danka te helpa me. Thanks for helping me.

te keci. You're welcome. (Literally: You're polite.)

haida let's

haida nyama! Let's eat!

haida enda nyama! Let's go eat!

haida enda dom. Let's go home.

nida need

me nida helpe. I need help.

me nida nyama. I'm hungry.

eska te nida nyama? Are you hungry?

eska te nida suy? Are you thirsty?

Part 3. Communication

pardon sorry, pardon

pardon! me ni aha. Sorry, I don't understand.

pardon! ce ke? Excuse me, what's this?

pardon. te namu ke? Excuse me, what's your name?

aha understand

eska te aha me? Do you understand me?

me aha. I understand.

pardon. me ni aha te. Sorry. I don't understand you.

me ni bas aha te. I didn't quite understand you.

me aha nol. I don't understand at all.

bila can

me bila gida kar. I can drive a car.

le ni bila gida kar. He/she doesn't know how to drive a car.

eska te bila xula le? Do you know how to fix it?

eska te bila pandunia? Do you speak Pandunia?

me bila pandunia. I speak Pandunia.

me bila lil pandunia. I speak a little Pandunia.

me ni bila engli. I don't speak English.

pardon. me ni bila te ya bax. Sorry, I don't speak your language.

loga to say, speak, talk

te loga ke? What did you say?

me loga pa te. I talk to you.

mome loga pa unale. We talk to each other.

ze loga "cat" sa ki yang sa pandunia? How do you say "cat" in Pandunia?

"cat" si ke sa pandunia? What is "cat" in Pandunia?

maw loga miaw. Cat says meow.

auda to listen, hear

auda me! Listen to me!

me ni bila auda te. I can't hear you.

bita loga forti. Please speak louder.

me auda musike. I listen to music.

te auda ki yang ya musike? What kind of music do you listen to?

wida to see

suku wida te. Pleased to see you!

wida te repi! See you again!

wida te badi den! See you tomorrow!

me wida le predi den. I saw him/her yesterday.

mena to mean

ci loge mena ke? What does this word mean?

"maw" mena ke? What does "maw" mean?

le mena yang yu hewan. It means a kind of animal.

me ni aha le mena ke. I don't understand what it means.

kitaba write

bita kitaba ti adres. Please, write your address.

bita kitaba le sa ce. Please, write it here!

baxa speak a language, communicate

eska tote baxa pandunia. Do you speak in Pandunia?

mome baxa pandunia. We speak in Pandunia.

eska te bila baxa engli? Can you speak English?

fransi, espani, portugali, rusi French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian

cini, nipon, indonesi Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian

arabi, turki, farsi, urdi, hindi Arabic, Turkish, Farsi, Urdu, Hindi

swahili, hausi, yorubi, amari Swahili, Hausa, Yoruba, Amharic

Part 4. Going around

enda to go

te enda ke? Where are you going?

me enda dom. I'm going home.

me bixu enda ke? Where should I go?

me bixu enda pa ki ren? To whom should I go?

haida enda! Let's go!

haida enda sa pede Let's go by foot!

laya to come

bita laya! Come here!

te laya da ke? Where do you come from?

me laya da dubai. I come from Dubai.

me laya dom badi den. I will come home tomorrow.

safara to travel

eska te safara sa tren? Do you travel by train?

mome safara da london pa paris. We travel from London to Paris.

safar day long. The voyage is very long.

sa in, on, at

hotel sa ke? Where is the hotel?

hotel sa ci daw. The hotel is on that road.

te sa ke? Where are you?

me sa dom. I'm at home.

le sa ke? Where is he/she?

le sida sa kamar. He/she sits in the room.

Tip! You can use sa as a preposition or alone as the verb.

me werka sa... I work at ...

doma to live, reside

te doma ke? Where do you live?

me doma singapur. I live in Singapore.

eska te doma ci hotel? Do you live in this hotel?

Tip: It is also okay to say te doma sa ke? instead of te doma ke. However doma already covers the meaning of being at somewhere, so sa is not necessary.

denga to wait

bita denga! Please wait!

denga me! Wait for me!

lole denga mome. They wait for us.

me denga te sa hotel. I wait for you in the hotel.

Part 5. Time expressions

zay currently

me zay salama te ya doste.
I am greeting your friend.

man zay wida fem.
The man is looking at the woman.

le zay xefe.
He or she is currently the chief.

le zay sa dom.
He or she is currently at home.

pas in the past

me pas salama te ya doste.
I greeted your friend.

man pas wida fem.
The man looked at the woman.

le pas xefe.
He or she was the chief.

le pas sa dom.
He or she was at home.

lew already, completed

me lew salama te ya doste.
I have greeted your friend.

man lew wida fem.
The man has looked at the woman.

le lew xefe.
He or she has been the chief.

le lew sa dom.
He or she has been at home.

wil (future action)

me wil salama te ya doste.
I will greet your friend.

man wil wida fem.
The man will see the woman.

le wil xefe.
He or she will be the chief.

le wil sa dom.
He or she will be at home.

Part 6. Doing business

dona give

bita dona pese. Please give some money.

bita dona le pa me. Please give it to me.

me dona ce pa te. I give this to you.

me dona buke pa lole. I give a book to them.

le ni wola dona le pa me. He/she doesn't want to give it to me.

kapa take, get

me kapa un kafe. I will take a coffee.

bita kapa un kafe pa me. Please take one coffee for me.

te pas kapa pese da me. You already got money from me.

me kapa un bir. I will take a beer.

kire rent, lease, hire

kire si 500 dolar sa mes.
The rent is 500 dollars in a month.

le ni bila peya kire.
He/she can't pay the rent.

me wola kapa un kar sa kire.
I want to take a car for rent.

me wola kirokapa un kar. I want to rent a car.

le kirodona kamar pa safarer. He/she rents rooms to travelers.