Introduction

Pandunia is a constructed language that is designed to be relatively easy for everyone. You can learn it fast with this practical course.

English speakers will find it easy to make basic sentences in Pandunia as the word order is generally the same as in English, there are no definite or indefinite articles, no verb "to be", and no complicated rules about changing the form of words to express singular and plural or the tense of verbs.

The course consists of short lessons. Each lesson introduces one new word, which is used in several different phrases in the lesson. This is to teach you how the word works as part of sentences. Possibly you will encounter also other new words in the same lesson but don't worry about them! You don't have to learn all of them at once. Just memorize the phrases that are useful for you! Maybe the rest will go to your memory subconciously.

You can study this course together with one or several friends. Read the phrases together and try to make small conversations. You can also study alone. Even then it's useful to read out loud and create conversations. Repeat the same phrases several times today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow and so on. As they say, repetition is the mother of learning.

Note! Many lessons include also tips and notes like this. They are there to clarify grammatical details for those who are interested. You can skip over them if they are not helpful. You don't have to know the theory of the language. You can just speak Pandunia!

Part 1: Greeting and basics

salam greet, greeting

salam Hello!

salam subá! Good morning!

salam den! Good day!

salam xam! Good evening!

salam noce! Good night!

salam nyam! Bon appetit!

salam lay! Welcome!

salam cute! Goodbye!

salam safar! Have a safe journey!

salam son! Sleep well!

As you can see from the range of expressions, salam is a general word for well-wishing. Use it any time!

Salam is a popular greeting that is used by both religious and non-religious people in many different countries around the world.

Etymology. salam is from Arabic: سَلَام‏ "salām", Hebrew: שָׁלוֹם‏ "šalom", Turkish: selam, Hindi: सलाम "salām", Swahili: salaam, Indonesian: selamat.

mi I, me

mi sara. I'm Sara.

mi tomas. I'm Thomas.

You can introduce yourself simply by saying mi and your name. You don't need a verb for saying it in Pandunia!

mi salama mame. I greet mother.

mi salama pape. I greet father.

The word salam is a noun and salama is the corresponding verb. The basic word order in Pandunia is subject-verb-object.

sara salama tomas. Sara greets Thomas.

salam mame! Greetings, mother!

salam pape! Greetings, father!

Etymology. mi is from English: me, Italian: mi, Swahili: mimi, Zulu: -mi-.

tu you

tu tomas. You are Thomas.

mi salama tu. I greet you.

tu salama mi. You greet me.

Pronouns don't ever change their form in Pandunia. That's why mi is the same in subject and object positions while English has two different forms, 'I' and 'me'.

mi ama tu. I love you.

Etymology. tu is from Spanish: tú, Italian: tu, French: tu, Hindi: तू (tū), Farsi: تو‏‎ (to), Tajik: ту (tu)".

ye he, she or it

ye man. He is a man.

ye fem. She is a woman.

ye aple. It is an apple.

ye is the general third person pronoun. It is used for people (irrespective of gender) as well as for things.

mi salama ye. I greet him/her.

Etymology. ye is from Lingala: yé, Swahili: yeye, Chichewa: iye, Zulu: -ye-, Hindi: यह "ye".

eska to ask a question

eska tu tomas? Are you Thomas?

eska tu dotor? Are you a doctor?

Tip: Yes/no questions frequently begin with eska. It is just a regular verb, not a special question tag. In fact, the previous question is simply abbreviated from mi eska tu dotor. (I ask, you doctor?) by dropping out the first word.

eska tu bon? How are you? (Literally: Are you good?)
mi bon. I'm good.
eska tu? And you?
mi no bon. I'm not good.

Etymology. eska is from French: est-ce que /ɛskə/, Haitian Creole: èske, English: ask.

si yes

eska tu tomas? Are you Thomas.

si, mi tomas. Yes, I am Thomas.

eska ye dotor? Is he/she a doctor?

si, ye dotor. Yes, he is a doctor.

The word si can be used also for stating something as a fact. Then it is used in place of "to be".

mi si tomas. I am Thomas.

tu si sara. You are Sara.

aple si pal. The apple is a fruit.

Note: It is necessary to use si in the latest phrase because, without it, the phrase would look like a compound word: aple pal (an apple fruit).

Etymology. si is from Spanish: sí, Portuguese: sim, Mandarin: 是 "shì", Shanghaiese: 是 "sí".

no no, not

mi no sara. I'm not Sara.

mi no dotor. I'm not a doctor.

eska tu bon? Are you well?
si. mi bon. Yes, I'm well.

eska tu bon? Are you well?
no, mi no bon. No, I'm not well.

You can use no to deny anything. It is placed before the word that is denied.

ye no salama mi. He/she doesn't greet me.

Etymology. no is from English: no, Spanish: no, French: non.

men people

Add men to a singular pronoun to make it plural.

mimen salama tumen. We greet you all.

tumen salama yemen. You greet them.

yemen salama mimen! They greet us.

mimen fem. We are women.

tumen man. You are men.

yemen aple. They are apples.

Etymology. men is from Mandarin: 们 "men", English: men (people in general).

ke? what? who?

ke? What?

tu ke? Who are you?
mi tomas. I'm Thomas.

ye ke? Who is he/she?
ye sara. She is Sara.

tumen ke? Who are you people?

yemen ke? Who are they?

Etymology. ke is from Spanish: qué, Portuguese: que, Italian: che, Bengali: কী "ki".

ce this

ce ke? / ke ce? What's this?

ce aple. This is an apple.

ce ros aple. This is a red apple.

ci aple ros. This apple is red.

Note: When an adjective, like ros, is placed before a noun, it works as a modifier. When it follows the noun, it works as an adjectival verb.

ce ros. This is red.

de that

mi suku ce i de. I like this and that.

mi suku ci kamis i di pantalon. I like this shirt and those pants.

Note: The demonstrative pronouns appear in two forms: ce and de are used as standalone words, while ci and di are used before the noun that they point to.

yemen na ke? Where are they?

yemen na de. They are there.

mimen na ce. We are here.

da 's (possessive particle)

ce ke? What's this?

ce mi da fon. It's my phone.

ce ke da? Whose is this?

ce mi da. It's mine.

Note: Possessive particle da is put between the owner and the owned thing. So mi da means "my", tu da means "your" and so on.

ye ke? Who's he/she?

ye si mi da doste. He/she is my friend.

mi si sara da doste. I am Sara's friend.

Etymology. da is from Punjabi: ਦਾ "dā", Mandarin: 的 "de".

nam name

tu da nam si ke? What's your name?

mi da nam si tomas. My name is Thomas.

ye namu ke? What he/she is called?

ye namu sara. She is called Sara.

mi namu tomas. I'm called Thomas.

Etymology. nam is from Hindi: नाम "nām", Farsi: نام‏‎ "nām", Thai: นาม "naam", Indonesian: nama, Japanese: 名前 "namae", German: Name, English: name.

ada have

mi ada bon dom. I have a good house.

ye no ada pesa. He/she doesn't have money.

mi wol ada nowi fon. I want to have a new phone.

eska tu ada bace? Do you have children?
mi ada dul bace. I have two children.

jana to know

mi jana ye. I know him/her.

eska tu jana di ren? Do you know that person?

eska tumen jana bici? Do you know each other?

mimen jana bici ze long. We know each other for long.

helpe help

mi nida helpe. I need help.

eska tu bila helpa mi? Can you help me?

eska mi bila helpa tu? Can I help you?

Part 2: Eating

nyama consume, eat, drink

eska tu wol nyama koy? Would you like to eat something?

ye nyama aple. He/she eats an apple.

yemen nyama aple. They eat apples.

Note: Unlike English, Pandunia doesn't have separate singular and plural forms. Therefore a word like aple can refer to one or more apples.

eska tu nyama kafe? Do you drink coffee?

mi nyama kafe. I drink coffee.

Tip: Meaning of nyama covers both eating and drinking. It can feel odd at first but soon you will see that it is quite handy! Usually the object of the verb tells is it about eating, drinking or both.

mi nyama kafe i nan. I'm having coffee and bread.

wol want

eska tu wol nyama? Would you like to eat?

tu wol nyama ke? What would you like to eat?

Tip: While English puts the "what" at the beginning of a question, in Pandunia the word order is not affected by the ke.

mi wol nyama kafe. I want to drink coffee.

eska tu wol nyama cay? Would you like to drink tea?
no. mi no wol cay. mi wol kafe. No, I don't want tea. I want coffee.

tu wol ki aple? Which apple do you want?
di ros. This red one.

bita request, please

mi bita tu nyama cay. I ask you to drink tea.

mi bita tu laya dom. I ask you to come home.

mi bita tu helpa mi. I ask you to help me.

Tip: To make direct requests, drop all the pronouns.

bita nyama cay. Please, have some tea!

bita nyama kafe. Please, have some coffee!

bita laya dom. Please, come home!

bita helpa mi. Please, help me.

danke thanks

danke! Thanks!

danka tu. Thank you.

mi danka tu. I thank you.

mi danka tu helpa mi. I thank you for helping me.

danka tu helpa mi. Thanks for helping me.

tu keci. You're welcome. (Literally: You're polite.)

haida let's

haida nyama! Let's eat!

haida enda nyama! Let's go eat!

haida enda dom. Let's go home.

nida need

mi nida helpe. I need help.

mi nida nyama. I'm hungry.

eska tu nida nyama? Are you hungry?

eska tu nida suy? Are you thirsty?

Part 3. Communication

pardon sorry, pardon

pardon! mi no aha. Sorry, I don't understand.

pardon! ce ke? Excuse me, what's this?

pardon. tu namu ke? Excuse me, what's your name?

aha understand

eska tu aha mi? Do you understand me?

mi aha. I understand.

pardon. mi no aha tu. Sorry. I don't understand you.

mi no bas aha tu. I didn't quite understand you.

mi aha nul. I don't understand at all.

bila can

mi bila gida kar. I can drive a car.

ye no bila gida kar. He/she doesn't know how to drive a car.

eska tu bila xula ye? Do you know how to fix it?

eska tu bila pandunia? Do you speak Pandunia?

mi bila pandunia. I speak Pandunia.

mi bila lil pandunia. I speak a little Pandunia.

mi no bila engli. I don't speak English.

pardon. mi no bila tu da bax. Sorry, I don't speak your language.

loga to say, speak, talk

tu loga ke? What did you say?

mi loga to tu. I talk to you.

mimen loga to bice. We talk to each other.

se loga "cat" na ke yang na pandunia? How do you say "cat" in Pandunia?

"cat" si ke na pandunia? What is "cat" in Pandunia?

maw loga miaw. Cat says meow.

auda to listen, hear

mi no bila auda tu. I can't hear you.

bita loga forti. Please speak louder.

mi auda musike. I listen to music.

tu auda ke yang da musike? What kind of music do you listen to?

wida to see

suku wida tu. Pleased to see you!

wida tu re! See you again!

wida tu ming den! See you tomorrow!

mi wida ye yer den. I saw him/her yesterday.

mena to mean

ci loge mena ke? What does this word mean?

"maw" mena ke? What does "maw" mean?

ye mena yang du hewan. It means a kind of animal.

mi no aha ye mena ke. I don't understand what it means.

kitaba write

bita kitaba tu da adres. Please, write your address.

bita kitaba ye na ce. Please, write it here!

baxa speak a language, communicate

eska tumen baxa pandunia. Do you speak in Pandunia?

mimen baxa pandunia. We speak in Pandunia.

eska tu bila baxa engli? Can you speak English?

fransi, espani, portugal, rusi French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian

putong han, nipon, indonesi Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian

arabi, turki, farsi, urdi, hindi Arabic, Turkish, Farsi, Urdu, Hindi

swahili, hausi, yorubi, amari Swahili, Hausa, Yoruba, Amharic

Part 4. Going around

enda to go

tu enda ke? Where are you going?

mi enda dom. I'm going home.

mi bixu enda ke? Where should I go?

mi bixu enda to ki ren? To whom should I go?

haida enda! Let's go!

haida enda na pede Let's go by foot!

laya to come

bita laya! Come here!

tu laya ze ke? Where do you come from?

mi laya ze dubai. I come from Dubai.

mi laya dom ming den. I will come home tomorrow.

safara to travel

eska tu safara na tren? Do you travel by train?

mimen safara ze london to paris. We travel from London to Paris.

safar day long. The voyage is very long.

na in, on, at

hotel na ke? Where is the hotel?

hotel na di daw. The hotel is on that road.

tu na ke? Where are you?

mi na dom. I'm at home.

ye na ke? Where is he/she?

ye sida na kamar. He/she sits in the room.

Tip! You can use na as a preposition or alone as the verb.

mi werka na... I work at ...

doma to live, reside

tu doma ke? Where do you live?

mi doma singapur. I live in Singapore.

eska tu doma ci hotel? Do you live in this hotel?

Tip: It is also okay to say "tu doma na ke?" instead of "tu doma ke". However doma already covers the meaning of being at somewhere, so na is not necessary.

denga to wait

bita denga! Please wait!

yemen denga mimen. They wait for us.

mi denga tu na hotel. I wait for you in the hotel.

Part 5. Time expressions

zay currently

mi zay salama tu da doste.
I am greeting your friend.

man zay wida fem.
The man is looking at the woman.

ye zay xefe.
He or she is currently the chief.

ye zay na dom.
He or she is currently at home.

pas in the past

mi pas salama tu da doste.
I greeted your friend.

man pas wida fem.
The man looked at the woman.

ye pas xefe.
He or she was the chief.

ye pas na dom.
He or she was at home.

lew already, completed

mi lew salama tu da doste.
I have greeted your friend.

man lew wida fem.
The man has looked at the woman.

ye lew xefe.
He or she has been the chief.

ye lew na dom.
He or she has been at home.

wil (future action)

mi wil salama tu da doste.
I will greet your friend.

man wil wida fem.
The man will see the woman.

ye wil xefe.
He or she will be the chief.

ye wil na dom.
He or she will be at home.

Part 6. Doing business

dona give

bita dona pese. Please give some money.

bita dona ye to mi. Please give it to me.

mi dona ce to tu. I give this to you.

mi dona buke to yemen. I give a book to them.

ye no wol dona ye to mi. He/she doesn't want to give it to me.

toma take, get

mi toma un kafe. I will take a coffee.

bita toma un kafe to mi. Please take one coffee for me.

tu pas toma pese ze mi. You already got money from me.

Word List

All words of Pandunia are loan words from other languages that are spoken around the world. Probably you can recognize many Pandunia words from English and other languages that you may know. Usually one Pandunia word is shared by many languages. For example mame and pape are known in hundreds of languages. However, only one source word is included in this word list as an example.

a but (Russian а)
ada have; there is (Indonesian ada)
aple apple (Indonesian apel)
bay white (Mandarin bái 白)
batú stone (Indonesian batu)
bazar marketplace, bazaar (Persian bāzār بازار)
bax language; communication (Hindi bhāśā भाषा)
baxa speak, communicate
bon good (French bon)
cay tea (Mandarin chá 茶)
ce this one
ci this; these
bita ask, request (Mandarin qǐng 请)
den day (Russian den' день)
de that one
di that; those
dom home, residence (Russian dom дом)
doma live, reside
dotor doctor (Portuguese doutor)
enda to go (Swahili kuenda)
engli English
eska ask (Haitian èske)
fem woman (French femme)
gata to tell (japana kataru 語る)
gon before, earlier, former(ly) (Thai gɔ̀ɔn ก่อน)
habar news (Malay khabar)
helpa to help, to assist
helpe help, assistance (English help)
i and (Polish i)
jana know (Hindi jānnā जानना)
kafe coffee (French café)
kal black (Hindi काला kāla)
kata cut (Hindi ‎kāṭnā काटना)
ke what? who? (Spanish qué)
ken can (English can)
keci polite (Mandarin kèqi 客气)
laya come (Vietnamese lai)
lew already, done, completed (Thai læw แล้ว)
mame mother (Mandarin māma 妈妈)
man man (English man)
mena to mean (Swahili maana)
mi I, me (Swahili mimi)
mimen we
na at, in, on, with (Lingala na)
nida need (English need)
no no, not (Spanish no)
noce night (Spanish noche)
pape father (Russian papa папа)
ren person (Mandarin rén 人)
ros red (Italian rosso)
safar travel, journey (Arabic safar سفر)
salam greeting; hello (Arabic salām سلام)
si yes (Spanish )
subá morning (Wolof subba)
to to, until (English to)
tu you (Spanish tu)
tumen you all
u or (French ou)
wang yellow (Cantonese wong)
wida see, look (Russian videt' видеть)
wol want (Italian volere)
xam evening (Hindi śām शाम )
ye he, she, it (Lingala )
yemen they
zay currently, at present (Mandarin zài 在)
ze from, since (Czech z, ze)