Currently speakers of Pandunia are counted in tens. It is still a very new language.
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Creators of Pandunia began to create a language together first in 2005. Since the beginning the basic idea was to create an evenly global auxiliary language. Many different structures and ideas were tried over the years. The name Pandunia was invented already in 2007 but the language got its "final" form in 2017 – but of course languages evolve all the time!
The flag of Pandunia represents global equality. There is a symbol of the blue planet against the background of the dark blue space. The equality sign is laid over the Earth.
Platypus (batokrote in Pandunia) is an egg-laying, duck-billed, beaver-tailed, otter-footed mammal that lives in eastern Australia. It is an unusual creature. That's why the platypus is a fitting mascot for Pandunia, which is also an unusual mix, a mix of words and grammar from East and West, from North and South.
Pandunia doesn't fit into any of the traditional types of languages. Also in that regard it is similar to the platypus, which is of its own type.
If your change is a small thing, you should try it in practice with other people and see how it works. If it really is a good change, other people will accept it and use it.
Creating offshoot languages is very common in the auxiliary language community. The case of Esperanto is famous. Offshoots of Esperanto are counted in the hundreds but most people haven't even heard of them. Esperanto is still the most popular language of its kind.
It is better to have one big language with several dialects than many competing languages.
Pandunia has been influenced by both natural and constructed languages.
The main creator of Pandunia is Risto Kupsala, a Finn who wants to help the world communicate better. People from many countries have helped over the years.
A worldlang is a constructed interlanguage that borrows its words, speech sounds and possibly grammar from different language families of the world. There are many worldlangs. Some of them are listed here.
At first Esperanto was an important source of inspiration. However the influence of Esperanto to the final language is insignificant. Pandunia has very different structure and vocabulary compared to Esperanto.
Yes. Here are some of the most important lessons to be learned from the history of the international auxiliary language (IAL) movement.
Pandunia is not meant to replace English or any other languages. People have ability to speak several languages and they speak every language for a different reason. Some people speak one language at home, another at work and yet another on international travels. We can imagine a world where English and all other languages will continue to be spoken, and where Pandunia is spoken as the universal second language.
In a way, English will never be replaced. Those who speak it today will speak it tomorrow. But new generations will grow and they will choose which language(s) they want to speak with each other. So it will be another world with another world language. Maybe it will be English, or maybe a new kind of English or maybe something else. The landscape of languages changes in a natural process. Different languages were spoken in the past and different languages will be spoken in the future.
You are free to speak Pandunia, English and any other language that your heart desires.
Pandunia follows the phonetic principle. One letter represents exactly one sound, and one sound is written with exactly one letter.
Traditionally there isn't any dedicated letter for /ʃ/ in the Latin alphabet. This sound is frequently written by the letter combination SH in English. Other languages use different letters and letter combinations such as CH in French, SCH in German, SJ in Swedish, SZ in Polish, Š in Czech and Ş in Turkish.
However, there is a handful of languages that use the letter X for /ʃ/. Basque and Maltese do it without exception. Portuguese and Catalan are less consistent, but X stands for /ʃ/ frequently. Pandunia word xampu' is written almost exactly the same as in Portuguese. It means shampoo.
In the Chinese romanization systen, Pīnyīn, the letter X stands for /ɕ/ which is close to /ʃ/. Pandunia has many words with X from Chinese, for example xim, xin and xuxe.
Actually there are several languages where C is pronounced like English CH. Some of them are Indonesian, Hausa, Oromo and Rwanda. In Italian, when C is followed by E or I, it is pronounced /tʃ/. This pronunciation is attested in loand words from Italian such as cello and cappuccino.
On the other hand, the letter C doesn't stand for any dedicated sound in English. The hard C can be represented by K and the soft C by S. So it makes sense to drop the H from CH.
It is unique but not as odd as you might think. In fact, the majority of letters (19 in total) are pronounced in general in the way in Pandunia and English, 5 are different, and two (q and v) are missing from Pandunia.
Most letters correspond to approximately similar sounds in Pandunia and in other languages that use the Latin alphabet in their spelling or their standard way of Romanization.
The alphabet of Pandunia is compared to alphabets and Romanizations used in other languages in the table below.
|Pandunia||a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w x y z|
|Malay/Indonesian||a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w y z||x|
|Indian Romaniz.||a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w y z||x|
|Hausa||a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w y z||x|
|Chinese Pinyin||a b c d f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w x y||e z|
|Swahili||a b d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u w y z||c x|
|Japanese Romaji||a b d e g h i j k l m n o p s t u w y z||c x||f r|
|Portuguese||a b d e f g i k l m n o p r s t u x z||y||c h j|
|English||b d f g h i j k l m n o p r s t w y z||a c e u x|
|French||a b d e f g i k l m n o p s t u w y z||c h j r x|
|Spanish||a b d e f g i k l m n o p r s t u y||c h j x z|
|German||a b d e f g h i k l m n o p r s t u||c j w x y z|
|Vietnamese||a b e g h i k l m n o p r t u y||f j w z||c d s x|
Pidgins and creoles are natural contact languages. Pandunia is a constructed contact language. So the answer is no, Pandunia is not a real pidgin or a creole. However, it is characterized by many of the same features as pidgins and creoles.
The following is a list of characteristic features of pidgins and creoles that apply for Pandunia too.
In general, word forms can change in four ways.
In Pandunia, only 3. and 4. are used. We can change the ending of a word, so for example loge (speech) can be changed to loga (to speak). We can also add suffixes, so for example insania (humanity) can be created from insan (human being).
Pandunia uses different word forms to indicate different word classes. There are many good sides:
Word class marking is a very efficient method to realize a functional grammar. It is done in Pandunia with a minimal set of only four endings. (In comparison, Esperanto employs 10 basic and 7 combined endings.)
Different structures were considered and tested during the development of Pandunia. The main choice was between an agglutinating and an isolating structure.
Pandunia is a lightly agglutinating language. It uses separate words to express things like person, number, mood, tense and aspect, which are typically expressed with inflection in agglutinating and inflecting languages.
To demonstrate the difference, let's compare the same sentence in Esperanto (a heavily agglutinating language) and Pandunia. Parts of word are separated with the vertical bar sign.
Esperanto: Mi vol|as vid|i vi|a|j|n du bel|a|j|n okul|o|j|n nun. Pandunia: me want|a wid|a t|i dul sundar kan zay. I want to see your two beautiful eyes now.
Pandunia's words come from all parts of the world.
In our opinion the world language should be a mix of all languages in the world. That's why Pandunia has at least a few words in common with almost all languages of the world.
A lot of words are in common to international and important regional languages.
About 6500 languages are spoken in the world today. It would be possible to borrow one and only one word from every language. But it wouldn't be very useful, if you knew only one or two words in the world language beforehand, would it?
It's smarter to borrow words that are in common to many languages. Then most people will know many words in Pandunia.
There are common words in every region of the world. For example, in Europe there are European international words, which often come from important ancient languages like Latin and Greek. In the Indian peninsula there are ancient words from Sanskrit that are in common to every language of that region.
That's why it is enough that we select some languages from every part of the world. They represent also the other languages of that region.
In Pandunia, words consist of a stem and one or more suffixes. A suffix is a part of word that belongs to the end. The final vowel of a word has a grammatical meaning in Pandunia. That's the basic reason why the final vowels are sometimes different in Pandunia than in other languages.
The second reason is that Pandunia borrows words from many languages, and often those languages don't agree about the final vowel. For example the word supe (soup) ends in -a in Spanish sopa, in -u in Japanese スープ or sūpu, in -e in German Suppe, and not in any vowel in English soup. So it's not one and the same word but rather an international family of similar words, and Pandunia's supe fits perfectly into that family.
The third reason is that endings of words change already in many source languages. For example, Pandunia word nowi is borrowed, among others, from Portuguese. In Portuguese, this word has many forms and only the stem nov- remains the same: nov|o, nov|a, nov|os, nov|as, nov|idade, re|nov|ar... So it makes sense to take only the stem and attach our regular Pandunia suffixes to it.
In many languages, expressions of greeting have something to do with peace, health or well-being. The origins of Pandunia's word salam can be traced back to Semitic triliteral root SLM, which covers a variety of meanings including safety, security, peace and health. Likewise the English word salutation (and French greeting salut) can be traced back to Latin "salus", which means safety, security, health and well-being.
So the meaning of salam is greater than the meaning of peace. It means well-being in general and you can use it as a general expression for well-wishing in all kinds of situations, not just when you meet somebody. See the first lesson in the phrasebook for a lot of examples!
"To be" is a multi-purpose verb in English. It has many unrelated meanings.
Pandunia has different ways to say these things. Sometimes there's no need for a mediating verb at all, and sometimes the Pandunia verb' is more precise than the multi-purpose "to be" would have been.