This document is a simple guide to the main features of Pandunia.

Letters and sounds

Pandunia: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s t u v w x y z
IPA: a b d e f g h~x i l m n o r~ɹ s u v w~ʋ ʃ j z~dz

The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in "are there three or two".

All other consonant are like in English except:

  • c is like the CH in church
  • x is like the SH in ship
  • g is always hard
  • r and h are never silent
  • s is always voiceless

Words

Words are made up of one or more roots and an ending. The ending indicates a part of speech.

  • Nouns end in -e or in a consonant
  • Adjectives end in -i
  • Adverbs end in -o
  • Active verbs end in -a
  • Passive verbs end in u

Nouns

Nouns indicate a group of one or more; definite or indefinite; masculine, neuter or feminine. Number, definiteness and gender are indicated by additional words.

maw – a cat, the cat, cats, the cats
un maw – one cat
multi maw – many cats
yi maw – this cat, these cats wi maw – that cat, those cats

Personal pronouns

Person Singular Plural
First me (I, me) mome (we, us)
Second te (you) tote (you)
Third le (he or she, him or her) lole (they, them)

Verbs

The basic word order is subject–verb–object (SVO).

me ama te. – I love you.

Tense, aspect and mood are indicated with particles and helping verbs.

me zay ama te. – I am loving you. (zay indicates ongoing time i.e. progressive aspect)
me pas ama te. – I loved you. (pas indicates the past time)
me lew ama te. – I have loved you. (lew indicates completed action i.e. the perfect(ive) aspect)
me wil ama te. – I will love you. (wil indicates future time)

The word order is the opposite in passive sentences. Passive verbs have the ending -u.

te amu. – You are loved.
me amu te. – I am loved by you.

Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives are usually before the noun that they modify, but they can be can be after it too.

novi idey – new idea
idey noviidea new

Adjectives are compared with max (more, -er), maxim (most, -est), min (less), minim (least) and sam (equally, as). The point of comparison is introduced with ko.

yi idey es max novi ko wi idey. – This idea is newer than that idea.

Adverbs end in -o. They are usually before the word that they modify, but not always.

me multo ama te. – I greatly love you.
me ama te multo. – I love you greatly.

Saying no

The word no denies the word that follows it.

no me a le wana kapa le – Not me but he/she wants to take it.
me no wana kapa le. – I don't want to take it.
me wana no kapa le. – I want not to take it.
me wana kapa no ye a we. – I want to take not this but that.

Questions

The question words are ke (what, who), ki (which) and ko (how). The normal word order is used in questions.

te ama ke? – Who do you love?
ki man ama te? – Which man loves you?
te ama me ko multo? – How much do you love me?