Spelling of Pandunia
The Basic Latin alphabet is used for writing Pandunia. Here is the alphabet of Pandunia followed by the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Pandunia, like Spanish, is pronounced exactly as it is spelt. No letter is silent. Every letter has one sound, always the same.
p b f v m w t d s z n l r c j x y k g h
Most consonants are pronounced same as in English. So pronunciation of b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, w, z is familiar and easy.
The following consonants are pronounced differently in Pandunia than in English.
- g is always hard like in girl, get.
- r is preferably trilled like in Scottish English or the rr in Spanish carro. Also other pronunciations are acceptable, including the standard English /ɹ/. Note that r is never silent!
- s is always voiceless like in sissy. z is voiced like in zoo.
- x is always pronounced like SH in ship.
- c is pronounced like CH in chip.
- j is pronounced like the English J.
- n is pronounced with the tip of the tongue except in combinations nk and ng, where it is velar /ŋ/ like in banker and finger. In the end of a word, the g in ng can be silent. So the word pang can be pronounced /paŋ/ as well as /paŋg/.
Semivowels y and w are pronounced like in English. As semivowels y is close to i sound and w is close to u sound.
Semivowels y and w are always followed by a full vowel or
a word break (when the bare word stem is used). For example:
maw tena naw hay. = The cat has nine lives.
Pandunia has five vowels.
i u e o a
They are pronounced as follows: a like in palm, e like in hey, i like in machine, o like in boy and u like in rude. They are pure vowels, so their quality doesn't change over the duration of the vowel.
When two vowels are next to each other, they will glide together and form a diphthong i.e. a gliding vowel.
For example a and u form a gliding vowel in the word mais. So the vowel begins in a and glides gradually to u. There is a similar gliding vowel in may.
The stress is on the syllable, which is before the last consonant.
Consider the following examples:
- maw /máw/, ding /díng/
- komun /komún/, bazar /bazár/, kamis /kamís/, sofah /sofáh/
- novi /nóvi/, musike /musíke/, arabi /arábi/
dunia /dúnia/, arabia /arábia/
dunia si momi sundari planete.
/dúnia sí mómi sundári planéte./
me wana loga komun bax, le si pandunia.
/mé wána lóga komún báx, lé sí pandúnia./
darsogur sida sa sofah.
/dársogúr sída sá sofáh/
Pandunia is normally written only in small letters (i.e. lower case letters). Large letters are not used in general, although they are not forbidden either.
There are three reasons why large letters and rules about their usage are not needed.
- Writing represents speech and there are no "capital sounds" in speech in beginning of proper names etc.
- Most of the scripts and alphabets of the world have only one letter type.
- It is simpler to use only small letters. No need for rules and exceptions.
Note! It's not a mistake to use the capital letters. Sometimes people do it because they are used to them in other languages. But still capital letters are unnecessary and not recommended.
Capital letters are used in standard international acronyms. For example: 10 Mb (des megobite), 100 Gb (hon gigobite), 2 mm (dul milometre), 1 kJ (un kilojul).
[-] Words may be divided into syllables with a hyphen. The hyphen is placed between spoken syllables. For example: bin, ka-fe, yu-mor, pos-ta.
[.] All kinds of sentences may end with a full stop.
[?] Questions may end alternatively with a question mark.
[!] Exclamation mark indicates loudness or emphasis.
[...] Three dots (i.e. ellipsis) may be used to indicate incomplete sentence or uncertainty.
[:] Colon indicates the beginning of an explanation or a list.
[,] Comma indicates a small pause or separation between clauses or listed items.
In informal texts smileys, emoticons and emojis may be used to indicate mood. For example :) indicates happiness and :( indicates sadness.
me vida te :)
= I see you.
me no vida te :( = I don't see you.
The most common word structure in Pandunia is CVCV, where C is a consonant and V is a vowel.
The heaviest possible word is CLVCCLVC, where L is a liquid consonant (l or r), but no such words actually exist. Some of the heaviest words in practice are kristal and simpli.
Initial consonants are restricted to:
- Any single consonant
- These stop + liquid clusters
- pl, bl, kl, gl
- pr, br, tr, dr, kr, gr
- These fricative + liquid clusters
- fl, sl, zl, xl
Middle consonant clusters are restricted to:
- These resonant (m, n, l, r) + stop or affricate clusters
- mp, mb, nt, nd, nk, ng, nc, nj
- lp, lb, lt, ld, lk, lg, lc, lj
- rp, rb, rt, rd, rk, rg, rc, rj
- These resonant + fricative clusters
- nf, nv, ns, nz, nx
- lf, lv, ls, ls, lx
- rf, rv, rs, rz, rx
- These fricative + stop clusters
- ft, fk
- st, sp, sk
- These fricative + resonant clusters
- sm, zm, xm, hm
- fn, sn, zn, xn, hn
- fl, sl, zl, xl, hl
- fr, hr
- These stop + sibilant clusters
- ps, bz, px
- ks, gz, kx
- These resonant + resonant or semivowel clusters
- ml, ny
- lm, ln, ly
- rm, rn, ry
- Resonant + sibilant + stop clusters
- e.g. lsk
- Resonant + stop + liquid clusters
- e.g. ngl
- Resonant + fricative + liquid clusters
- e.g. lfr
- Sibilant + stop + liquid clusters
- e.g. str
- Stop + liquid (see above)
Allowed final consonants and clusters are:
h, l, m, n, ng, r, s, w, x, y
In addition, any proper name of a person, place, or cultural concept, as well as words derived from them, may contain any two- or three-consonant cluster in the middle of a word so long as it does not contain:
- Two consecutive stops, affricates, or fricatives of different voicings
- e.g. fg
- Two consecutive sibilants or affricates
- e.g. sc
- Two consecutive identical consonants
- e.g. mm