The Basic Latin alphabet is used for writing Pandunia. Here is the alphabet of Pandunia followed by the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Pandunia, like Spanish, is pronounced exactly as it is spelt. No letter is silent. Every letter has one sound, always the same.
p b f m w t d s z n l r c j x y k g h
Most consonants are pronounced same as in English. So pronunciation of b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, t, w, z is familiar and easy.
The following consonants are pronounced differently in Pandunia than in English.
Semivowels y and w are pronounced like in English. As semivowels y is close to i sound and w is close to u sound.
Semivowels y and w are always followed by a full vowel or
a word break (when the bare word stem is used). For example:
maw tena naw jiwe. = The cat has nine lives.
Pandunia has five vowels.
i u e o a
They are pronounced as follows: a like in palm, e like in hey, i like in machine, o like in boy and u like in rude. They are pure vowels, so their quality doesn't change over the duration of the vowel.
When two vowels are next to each other, they will glide together and form a diphthong i.e. a gliding vowel.
For example a and u form a gliding vowel in the word paus. So the vowel begins in a and glides gradually to u. There is a similar gliding vowel in paw.
The stress is on the syllable, which is before the last consonant.
Consider the following examples:
dunia /dúnia/, arabia /arábia/
dunia si momi sundar planete.
/dúnia sí mómi sundár planéte./
me wanta loga komun bax, le si pandunia.
/mé wánta lóga komún báx, lé sí pandúnia./
darsogur sida sa sofah.
/dársogúr sída sá sofáh/
Pandunia is normally written only in small letters (i.e. lower case letters). Large letters are not used in general, although they are not forbidden either.
There are three reasons why large letters and rules about their usage are not needed.
Note! It's not a mistake to use the capital letters. Sometimes people do it because they are used to them in other languages. But still capital letters are unnecessary and not recommended.
Capital letters are used in standard international acronyms. For example: 10 Mb (des megobite), 100 Gb (hon gigobite), 2 mm (dul milometre), 1 kJ (un kilojul).
[-] Words may be divided into syllables with a hyphen. The hyphen is placed between spoken syllables. For example: bin, ka-fe, yu-mor, pos-ta.
[.] All kinds of sentences may end with a full stop.
[?] Questions may end alternatively with a question mark.
[!] Exclamation mark indicates loudness or emphasis.
[...] Three dots (i.e. ellipsis) may be used to indicate incomplete sentence or uncertainty.
[:] Colon indicates the beginning of an explanation or a list.
[,] Comma indicates a small pause or separation between clauses or listed items.
In informal texts smileys, emoticons and emojis may be used to indicate mood. For example :) indicates happiness and :( indicates sadness.
me wida te :)
= I see you.
me ni wida te :( = I don't see you.
The most common word structure in Pandunia is CVCV, where C is a consonant and V is a vowel.
The heaviest possible word is CLVCCVC, where L is a liquid consonant (l or r). For example kristal is such a word.
Initial consonants are restricted to:
Middle consonant clusters are restricted to:
Allowed final consonants are:
h, l, m, n, ng, r, s, w, x, y