Word derivation

New words can be built freely in Pandunia! Pandunia has a productive system of word derivation. Most of the suffixes that are used in Pandunia are already in international use. Many of them come from ancient Greek, Latin, Arabic and Persian.

How to combine words

Two or more roots can be put together to make a compound word. The last root is the most meaningful part in the compound and the roots that come before it only modify its meaning.

Compound words are made of bare word stems and a vowel ending.

For example, this is how the word andewisti (atheistic) is made:

       an       (negation)
   +  deu       (god)
   +  ist       (proponent, -ist)
   +    i       (adjective ending)
_____________
= andevisti     (atheistic)

If joining bare stems together would result into a difficult consonant sequence, a padding vowel -o- is inserted between them.

For example, this is how termometer (thermometer) is made:

     term       (temperature)
   +    o       (padding vowel)
   +  met       (measuring)
   +   er       (device)
____________
= termometer    (thermometer)

Common Suffixes

an-

Creates verbs that reverse the meaning of the base verb.

noda to tie; annoda to untie
tapa to plug, to close with a plug; antapa to unplug, to open the plug.

-an-

Active participle and causative suffix

yama to eat
yamani eating
yamana to make eat, to feed
xula to learn
xulana to teach
sava to know
savana to let know, to inform

-er

Creates agent nouns. It denotes a person or a tool which does the action.

loga to speak; loger speaker, the one who speaks
beka to bake; beker baker, the one who bakes
lida to lead; lider leader, the one who leads
filsofa to think deeply; filsofer philosopher
komputa to compute, to process data; komputer computer
morta to kill; morter killer

The derivative can be also more loosely associated with the root.

sapate shoe; sapater shoemaker
muskete musket; musketer musketeer
kase cash desk; kaser cashier

-ia

Creates aggregate nouns. It denotes a group of elements named by the root as a whole.

insan human being; insania humanity, mankind, all the human beings as a group.
kristi Christian, kristia Christianity, all Christians as a group.
filsof view, outlook, life wisdom; filsofia philosophy, the discipline of wisdom.

This ending is often found in place names, especially in country names. However this use is not systematic and it's not required. There are also a lot of country names that do not end in -ia.

arabi Arab, Arabic; Arabia Arabia
rusi Russian; Rusia Russia
turki Turk, Turkish; Turkia Turkey
Asia Asia
Indonesia Indonesia
Italia Italy

Also abstract nouns often end in -ia.

novi new, novia newness, novelty
huri free, huria freedom

When it is added after -er, it means a field of expertise.

enjener engineering
sapateria shoemaking

-ik-

-ik- denotes someone or something that is predominantly characterized by the base word.

uni one → uniki only, sole, single
dome – home
domiki – domestic
novi new → novike novice, newbie

-abli

Indicates possibility. It is often used with the active participle -an-.

abli possible
ablani able, capable
vidabli which can be seen, visible
vidablani who/which can see

-ist-

This suffix that denotes a person who tends to behave or think in a certain way or to follow a certain ideology or religion.

deu god
deviste theist (one who believes in existence of a god or gods)
devisti theistic
devistia theism (system of belief in a god or gods)

-it-

Passive participle and causative suffix.

sava to know
saviti known
savita to make known