Verbs

Introduction

A verb denotes an action or an occurence, ex. to eat, to speak, to look and to think.

A verb can involve an agent and a recipient. The agent performs or "causes" an action, and the recipient receives or "experiences" the action.

Pandunia has two types of verb: verbs that end in -a and verbs that end in -u. The endings decide the order of the agent and the recipient of the action in the sentence. So the sentence structure depends on the type of the verb.

Simply put, the ending -a means:
If there is anything right before the verb, it is the agent.
If there is anything right after the verb, it is the recipient.

And the ending -u means:
If there is anything right before the verb, it is the recipient.
If there is anything right after the verb, it is the agent.

Consider the following examples:
me safa. – I clean.
me safa kamare. – I clean a room.
kamare safu. – Room is cleaned.
kamare safu me. – Room is cleaned by me.

As you can see, -a and -u indicate word orders that are opposite to each other. Verbs that end in -a are active and verbs that end in -u are called passive.

Active verbs

Verbs that end in -a are called active verbs. The sentence word order is subject–verb–object.

The subject of an active verb does the action that the verb indicates. So it is the doer or the agent of the action. The action is done to the object, so the object is the passive recipient of the action.

Examples:
te vida ke? – You see what?
me vida lole. – I see them.
te beka pang. – You bake bread.

Passive verbs

Verbs that end in -u are called passive verbs. The sentence word order is again subject–verb–object, but the actual roles of subject and object are different than with active verbs.

The subject of a passive verb receives or "suffers" the action, which is done to it, and the object is the source of the action.

Often passive sentences in Pandunia can be translated to English by using the passive voice or an intransitive verb but sometimes a transitive verb can be used too.

Examples:
pang beku te. – Bread is baked by you.
pakse domisu arbe. – Birds are housed by trees.
te suku me. – You are pleased by me. (Or: You like me.)

Prepositions

In Pandunia, prepositions are basically a sub-category of verbs.

Prepositions of place and time

Pandunia has four prepositions of place and time.

  1. sa - presence, location or moment (in general): with, at, in, on, by, during, while
  2. na - absence or lack: without
  3. ca - origin, beginning or cause: from, since, because
  4. pa - destination, end or purpose: to, till, until, for, then

A preposition begins a prepositional phrase. In a simple prepositional phrase the preposition is complemented by a pronoun or a noun phrase.

me sa hotel. - I'm in the hotel.
me sona sa hotel. - I sleep in the hotel.
me sona ca xam pa sube. - I sleep since evening until morning.
me safara ca london pa paris. - I travel from London to Paris.

Prepositions can be complemented also by a verb phrase. Then they refer to time.

me denga ca te gowa. - I have waited since you left.
me denga pa te laya dome. - I wait until you come home.
me denga sa te sona. - I wait while you sleep.

sa

sa is an all-purpose preposition. Its basic meaning is "with".

me libu sa dome.
I stand with house.
I stand by the house.

me loga sa pandunia.
I speak with Pandunia.
I speak in Pandunia.

me loga sa doste sa pandunia sa fon.
I speak with friends with Pandunia with telephone.
I speak with friends in Pandunia by telephone.

Verbs as prepositions

In Pandunia some verbs function like prepositions do in English.

me kata pang. - I cut bread.
me kata pang, uza caku. - I cut bread, use a knife. (I cut bread with a knife.)

me denga dura dul hor. - I wait, (it) lasts two hours. (I wait during/for two hours.)

Here are some verbs that are usable as prepositions:

bada - to follow; after, behind
dura - to last; during, for the time/duration of
jungu - to be centered; amid, amidst, in the middle, in the center
loka - to occupy, to be located; at
sirka - to surround; around
supra - to surpass; over, above

Verbs without prepositions

Prepositions are not used as frequently in Pandunia as in English. In many phrases, the verb says enough alone.

me laya dome. - I come home.
te sida kurse. - You sit (on) the chair.
le lala sofa'. - S/he lies (on) the sofa.
fix nata daria. - Fish swim (in) the sea.
jenger marca daw. - Warriors march (on) the road.

Preposition of relation

Preposition ko indicates manner or style. It corresponds to English prepositions like, than, as and as if.

me jana pandunia ko gur. - I know Pandunia like a master.

ko relates the verb or the adjective to a point of comparison. In the above example jana (know) is the verb and gur (master) is the point of comparison.

ko is also used when adjectives are compared.

bace si min day ko pape. - The child is smaller than the father.
law pape si samo day ko pape. - Grandfather is as big as father.

ko relates the adverbs of comparison – max (more), min (less) and samo (same) – to the point of comparison, which is pape (father) in the examples above.