Verbs

Verb types

A verb denotes an action or an occurence, ex. to eat, to speak, to look and to think.

A verb can involve an agent and a recipient. The agent performs or "causes" an action, and the recipient receives or "experiences" the action.

There are three types of verbs in Pandunia:

  1. Active: The subject does the action. The the verb ends in -a.
  2. Passive: The subject receives the action. The verb ends in -u.
  3. Stative: The subject is in the state that is indicated by the verb. The verb ends in -i.

Consider the following examples:
me safa. – I clean. (active verb)
me safa kamar. – I clean a room. (active verb with an object)
kamar safu. – The room is cleaned. (passive verb)
kamar safu me. – The room is cleaned by me. (passive verb with an object)
kamar safi. – The room is clean. (stative verb)

As you can see, -a and -u indicate opposite orders for the agent and recipient.

Active verbs

Verbs that end in -a are called active verbs. In the active voice, the subject does the action, and the object receives the action of the verb. The word order is subject–verb–object.

Subject Verb Object
maw yama mush.
Cats eat mice.

In active sentences, the focus is on the doer of the action.


fem kitaba buke.
– The woman writes a book.

The subject of an active verb is the doer or the agent who does the action that the verb indicates. The action is done to the object, which is the passive recipient of the action.

Examples:
te vida ke? – You see what?
me vida lole. – I see them.
te beka pang. – You bake bread.

Passive verbs

Verbs that end in -u are called passive verbs. (They could be also called mediopassive verbs.) The sentence word order is the normal subject–verb–object, but this time the subject receives the action, and the object (if there is one) does the action of the verb.

Subject Verb Object
mush yamu maw.
Mice are eaten by cats.

When a passive verb is used, the focus is on the recipient of the action.


buke kitabu.
– The book is written.

See how the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb:

Subject Verb Object
fem kitaba buke.
The woman writes the book.
buke kitabu fem.
The book is written by the woman.

In Pandunia, a passive verb is used when:

  1. The subject receives an action, ex. kitabu (to be written), darbu (to get hit).
  2. The subject undergoes a change of state, ex. parchu (to get broken), novu (to become new).
  3. The subject moves to another place, ex. layu (to come), marchu (to walk).
  4. The subject is influenced or stimulated by the object, ex. suku (to be pleased), fobu (to be scared)

Sometimes a passive verb is used in Pandunia when an active verb would be used in English because of the last point. For example, desire is stimulated by the object of desire, so the corresponding verb volu (to want or desire) is "passive" in Pandunia. Likewise, joy and pleasure are stimulated by the source of joy, so the corresponding verb suku (to enjoy or like) is also "passive" – as it can also be in English (to be pleased by)!

me volu novi jupe. – I desire a new skirt.
me suku boni yam. – I enjoy good food. OR I am pleased by good food.

Stative verbs

Verbs that end in -i are called stative verbs. They are basically adjectives that describe the subject in a verb-like manner. The subject of a stative verb is in the state denoted by the verb root.


buke kitabi.
– The book is written.

Stative verbs differ from passive verbs by the fact that a stative verb is about being in a state whereas a passive verb indicates a change of state. In other words, a stative verb is a passive of being and a passive verb is a passive of becoming.

Stative verbs are always intransitive. They can't have an object. For example, see how the verbs about fuke (clothes or clothing) work.

me fuki. – I am clothed. OR I am dressed.
me fuku sapate. – I wear shoes.
le fuka sapate pa me. – He or she puts shoes on me.

So, as a verb, fuki means to be clothed or dressed and, as an adjective, clothed, dressed.

fuki ren abla restu jivi sa lengia. – A clothed person can stay alive in the cold.

Summary of the verb types

The verb types are summarized in the table below.

Noun Stative verb Passive verb Active verb
kitabe kitabi kitabu kitaba
writing written get written write
saf safi safu safa
tidyness tidy, clean get clean make clean
nove novi novu nova
novelty new, novel get new make new
yam yami yamu yama
food eaten get eaten eat
guste gusti gustu gusta
taste tasty be tasted taste, try
am ami amu ama
love dear be loved love, hold dear
Noun Stative verb Passive verb Active verb
suke suki suku suka
joy, pleasure joyful, happy enjoy, like please
nide nidi nidu nida
need needy need cause need
vol voli volu vola
want wanting want cause want
tam tami tamu tama
greed greedy covet, hog make greedy
fobe fobi fobu foba
fear afraid, scared fear scare
lay layi layu laya
arrival come, arrive bring, make come
fuke fuki fuku fuka
clothing clothed wear dress, make wear
dur duri duru dura
time, duration lasting last, take time spend, put time

Participles

-an- denotes someone or something that does the action of the root. It is the active participle suffix.

loga – to speak
logani – speaking
logane – the one who speaks

-ut- denotes someone or something that undergoes the action of the root. It is the passive participle suffix.

loga – to speak
loguti – spoken
padu – to fall
paduti – fallen

-ik- denotes someone or something that is predominantly characterized by the base word.

uni (one) → uniki (only, sole, single)
dome – home
domiki – domestic
novi (new) → novike (novice, newbie)

Causative verbs

Causative verbs express an action, which the subject causes to happen via some third party that is not mentioned. In Pandunia, causatives are formed with the active participle suffix -an-.

maw yama pesh. – The cat eats fish.
me yamana pesh pa maw. – I feed fish to the cat.

me bina dome. – I build the house.
me binana dome. – I have the house built.

Prepositions

In Pandunia, prepositions are basically a sub-category of verbs.

Prepositions of place and time

Pandunia has four prepositions of place and time.

  1. sa - presence, location or moment (in general): with, at, in, on, by, during, while
  2. na - absence or lack: without
  3. cha - origin, beginning or cause: from, since, because
  4. pa - destination, end or purpose: to, till, until, for, then

A preposition begins a prepositional phrase. In a simple prepositional phrase the preposition is complemented by a pronoun or a noun phrase.

me sa hotel. - I'm in the hotel.
me sona sa hotel. - I sleep in the hotel.
me sona cha xam pa sube. - I sleep since evening until morning.
me safara cha london pa paris. - I travel from London to Paris.

Prepositions can be complemented also by a verb phrase. Then they refer to time.

me denga cha te gova. - I have waited since you left.
me denga pa te laya dome. - I wait until you come home.
me denga sa te sona. - I wait while you sleep.

sa

sa is an all-purpose preposition. Its basic meaning is "with".

me libu sa dome.
I stand with house.
I stand by the house.

me loga sa pandunia.
I speak with Pandunia.
I speak in Pandunia.

me loga sa doste sa pandunia sa fon.
I speak with friends with Pandunia with telephone.
I speak with friends in Pandunia by telephone.

Verbs as prepositions

In Pandunia some verbs function like prepositions do in English.

me kata pang. - I cut bread.
me kata pang, uza chake. - I cut bread, use a knife. (I cut bread with a knife.)

me denga dura dul hor. - I wait, (it) lasts two hours. (I wait during/for two hours.)

Here are some verbs that are usable as prepositions:

bada - to follow; after, behind
dura - to last; during, for the time/duration of
jungu - to be centered; amid, amidst, in the middle, in the center
loka - to occupy, to be located; at
sirka - to surround; around
supra - to surpass; over, above

Verbs without prepositions

Prepositions are not used as frequently in Pandunia as in English. In many phrases, the verb says enough alone.

me laya dome. - I come home.
te sida kurse. - You sit (on) the chair.
le lala sofa'. - S/he lies (on) the sofa.
pesh nata daria. - Fish swim (in) the sea.
jenger marca dav. - Warriors march (on) the road.

Preposition of relation

Preposition ko indicates manner or style. It corresponds to English prepositions like, than, as and as if.

me jana pandunia ko master. - I know Pandunia like a master.

ko relates the verb or the adjective to a point of comparison. In the above example jana (know) is the verb and gur (master) is the point of comparison.

ko is also used when adjectives are compared.

pute si min day ko pape. - The child is smaller than the father.
lawpape si samo day ko pape. - Grandfather is as big as father.

ko relates the adverbs of comparison – may (more), min (less) and samo (same) – to the point of comparison, which is pape (father) in the examples above.