Adverbs

Modifying a verb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb or another modifier.

In Pandunia adverbs end in -o and their place is before a verb or at the end of the sentence.

me bono sona. – I well sleep.
me sona bono. – I sleep well.
te baxa pandunia bono. – You speak Pandunia well.

Modifying another modifier

A modifier can modify also another modifier. For example day (big) and lil (little) can be used as intensifying adverbs.

dayi jan – a big person
lili jan – a little person
sundari jan – a beautiful person

dayo sundari jan – very beautiful person
lilo sundari jan – somewhat beautiful person

Comparison

Modifiers can be compared with the adverbs of comparison.

  • max (more) indicates comparison of superiority
  • maxim (most) indicates the superlative of superiority
  • min (less) indicates comparison of inferiority
  • minim (least) indicates the superlative of inferiority
  • paro (as or equally) indicates the comparison of equality

The particle ka relates the adverbs of comparison to the object of comparison.

aple sa max boni ka oranje. = Apples are better than oranges.
oranje sa min boni ka aple. = Oranges are less good than apples.
te loga paro bono ka me. = You speak as well as me.

It is also possible to compare modifiers with the following verbs, which are directly attached to the object of comparison.

  • maxu (to exceed)
  • minu (to subceed)
  • paru (to equal)

aple sa boni maxu oranje. – Apples are good, exceed oranges. meaning: Apples are better than oranges.
oranje sa boni minu aple. – Oranges are good, subceed apples. meaning: Oranges are less good than apples.
te loga bono para me. – You speak well, equal me. meaning: You speak as well as me.

Adverbs of time and space

Adverbs are used for expressing time and place of events and actions. Here are some of the most frequently used adverbs:

paso – before, earlier
ceno – before, earlier
medo – between
bado – after, later
viso – instead
duro – in the meanwhile
diko – toward
sabo – because
kontro – against
maxo – additionally

A complement can be added with the preposition da.

me vida les paso. – I have seen them before.
me vida les paso da unyom. – I have seen them before Monday.

me vola xopa tougar maxo da motogar. – I want to buy a trailer in addition to the car.