1.3. The basic rules
These are the basic rules of Pandunia language. They are described in more detail later in this document.
- The spelling follows the pronunciation exactly.
- The stress is placed on the syllable before the last consonant of the word.
- Words consist of a stem and one or more suffixes.
The last suffix indicates the word class to which the word belongs.
- Adjectives end in -i, ex. novi = new.
- Adverbs end in -o, ex. novo = newly.
- Active verbs end in -a, ex. me loga = I speak.
- Passive verbs end in -u, ex. le logu = It is spoken.
- Nouns end in -e, -ia or a consonant.
- Nouns have a single, unchanging form.
- Adjectives come before the word that they modify.
All adjectives, except the most common few, end in -i.
- ex. rapidi loge = Fast speech.
- Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs and complete sentences.
They come before the word that they modify or very last in the sentence.
All adverbs, except the most common few, end in -o.
- ex. 1. vero rapidi loge = Very fast speech.
- ex. 2. te loga bono. = You talk well.
- The verb ending -a indicates that the verb is active
and the agent of the action is immediately before the verb.
- ex. me niama aple. = I eat apples.
- The verb ending -u indicates that the verb is passive
and the recipient of the action is immediately before the verb.
- ex. aple niamu. = Apples are eaten.
- In the pivot structure, the object of the transitive verb
functions as the subject of the next verb.
- ex. me pliza te dona pes. = I ask you to give money.
- Pronouns can be left out when they are obvious and redundant.
- me eska te baxa pandunia? → eska te baxa pandunia? = Do you speak Pandunia?
- me pliza te loga mingo. → pliza loga mingo. = Please speak clearly.
- Compound words are created by putting the word stems side by side.
The linking vowel -o- is inserted between the stems.
- ex. hur- (freedom) + ist- (proponent) → huriste (liberalist)
- ex. post- (mail) + sanduk- (box) → postosanduke (mailbox)